Engineering comprehensive hole measuring system and method based on in-hole camera shooting and single-hole sound waves

A single-hole acoustic wave engineering technology, which is applied in the field of engineering comprehensive hole measurement system, can solve the problems affecting the accuracy of depth measurement, water turbidity, and the influence of sound wave detection, so as to improve the clarity and the coupling degree of drilling sound waves, and improve the clarity of imaging degree, the effect of reducing the detection time

Active Publication Date: 2016-11-23
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AI-Extracted Technical Summary

Problems solved by technology

[0007] (3) The current single-hole acoustic wave instrument only includes a cable and a sound wave probe with one send and two receivers, and no water plugging device is designed for the borehole opening. This kind of equipment can complete the detection in the vertical hole, but in the tunnel In the geophysical prospecting work, when detecting the rock mass in front of the tunnel face, due to the limitation of the site conditions, most of the drilling holes are horizontal holes or intersect with the horizontal direction at a small angle
In order to ensure that the hole is filled with water, the hole needs to be blocked. The current method is to install a steel plate with a hole and use an anchoring agent to block it. In this method, a large amount of water will flow out of the hole during the water injection process. , can not guarantee the degree of water saturation in the hole, affecting the detection effect of single hole acoustic wave
In the process of comprehensive hole measurement, the hole needs to be artificially filled with water. If the existing technology directly injects water into the hole, there will be the following two problems: one is that the water filling in the hole cannot be guaranteed, and it is ...
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Method used

As shown in Fig. 9 (a), Fig. 9 (b), described depth sensor mainly comprises rotational speed sensor 34 (sliding type), contraction spring 35, sliding fixer 36 pulley 37 and high friction damping cloth 38 composition , wherein the two ends of the contraction spring 35 are respectively installed on the sliding fixer 36 and the speed sensor 34 (sliding type), and the two are fixed together by the spring more closely, and at the same time, a high friction damping cloth is installed on the runner 38, it can ensure that it can complete the speed measurement synchronously with the advance of the push rod, and finally realize the accurate measurement of the drilling depth.
As shown in Figure 4, described probe push rod mainly comprises No. 1 push rod 17 and common rod, and push rod adopts high-strength aluminum alloy material, both can guarantee t...
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The invention discloses an engineering comprehensive hole measuring system and method based on in-hole camera shooting and single-hole sound waves. The engineering comprehensive hole measuring system comprises a combined measuring probe. The combined measuring probe stretches into a borehole of a rock mass, a push rod is arranged behind the combined measuring probe, the combined measuring probe is connected through a hole opening fixing device, the hole opening fixing device is arranged at the opening of the borehole, a depth sensor is arranged at the front end of the push rod, the depth sensor and the combined measuring probe are connected with a main measuring machine, and the combined measuring probe is pushed to move forwards by controlling the push rod to collect and analyze in-borehole data. The machine learning and data mining method is adopted, the decision tree algorithm, the k-means clustering algorithm and the Apriori association algorithm are utilized to analyze in-hole camera shooting and single-hole sound wave data, and the automation degree and accuracy of exploration forecasting are improved. By means of the engineering comprehensive hole measuring system and method, the workload of in-hole camera shooting and single-hole sound wave detection can be greatly reduced, and meanwhile the detection time can be shortened.

Application Domain

Geological measurements

Technology Topic

PhysicsSingle hole +7


  • Engineering comprehensive hole measuring system and method based on in-hole camera shooting and single-hole sound waves
  • Engineering comprehensive hole measuring system and method based on in-hole camera shooting and single-hole sound waves
  • Engineering comprehensive hole measuring system and method based on in-hole camera shooting and single-hole sound waves


  • Experimental program(1)

Example Embodiment

[0068] The present invention will be further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments.
[0069] like figure 2 As shown in the figure, an engineering comprehensive hole measuring system based on in-hole camera and single-hole acoustic wave mainly includes a measuring host, a comprehensive probe, a probe push rod, an orifice fixing device and a depth sensor. Before measurement, put the integrated probe into the pre-drilled hole, the probe push rod is fixed on the probe, the orifice holder 22 and the depth sensor are sleeved on the push rod, the orifice holder 22 moves forward and is fixed to the During drilling, the cable is connected to the measuring host, and during the measurement, the drilling data is collected by pushing the push rod hole 39 at a constant speed;
[0070] like image 3As shown, the integrated probe mainly includes a temperature tester 1, a compass and a temperature display panel 3, a high-strength light-transmitting glass 5 a mist removal device, a high-definition panoramic camera device 6, a self-adjusting electric push rod device 9, probe control and data acquisition The integrated device 13 and the double-conversion transducer transmitter 11, each device is controlled by the probe control and data acquisition integrated device 13, the integrated device is connected to the external measurement host through a cable, and the staff can complete the control of the probe through the measurement host;
[0071] The temperature tester 1 is located at the top of the probe, and uses copper with good thermal conductivity as a thermal conduction medium to measure temperature, and can collect temperature data at different depths in the hole;
[0072] like Figure 5 As shown, the compass and temperature tester 1 is installed on the top of the probe, facing the high-definition panoramic camera 6, and the compass and temperature measurement device is equipped with a mirror 4 around it, which can reflect the image of the rock wall to the camera. ;
[0073] The high-strength light-transmitting glass 5 mist removal device mainly includes a desiccant homogeneous layer 2 and an automatic glass brush device. In order to ensure a higher resolution of the camera image, a 360-degree circular glass brush 8 is set in front of the probe. The fog generated inside the high-intensity light-transmitting glass 5 can be effectively erased, and a desiccant equalization layer 2 is set at the probe position. The two-pronged approach can effectively avoid the effect of fog on imaging clarity.
[0074] The self-adjusting electric push rod device mainly includes an electric telescopic rod 9 and a telescopic control device 10. The telescopic control device 10 mainly includes two parts, an electric transmission device and a pressure sensor, and is connected with the control and data acquisition integrated device. Two functions can be realized: function 1. By controlling its electric transmission device, the front and rear movement of the fixed top of the probe can be controlled; When the resistance is greater than a certain set critical value, it is considered that the bottom hole cannot be comprehensively measured (the probe reaches the deepest position or there is gravel in the hole, etc.), the electric telescopic rod 9 shrinks, and the top of the probe is recovered to protect the probe from damage;
[0075] The probe control and data acquisition integrated device is installed at the end of the probe, connected with each device through a cable, and is mainly used for control and data acquisition and transmission between each device;
[0076] The double-conversion transducer transmitter is installed on both sides behind the probe, and can emit sound wave signals of different frequencies according to requirements, and can also be used as a self-exciting and self-receiving device;
[0077] like Figure 4 As shown, the probe push rod mainly includes a No. 1 push rod 17 and a common rod. The push rod is made of high-strength aluminum alloy material, which can not only ensure the lightness of the rod, but also can complete the detection work in the hole with high strength; The putter is hollow inside,
[0078] The No. 1 push rod 17 mainly includes a push rod wall, a fixed cover for connecting the probe and the push rod, and a sound wave collector 18, wherein the probe and the push rod are connected to the fixed cover on the top of the No. 1 push rod 17, which can be connected with the tail of the probe. , the diameter is gradually reduced, which can ensure that the probe is not stuck by the sudden change of the hole wall and rock mass during the recovery process;
[0079] The acoustic wave collector 18 includes a front acoustic wave collector 18 and a rear acoustic wave collector 18, and the distance between the two is 20 cm, which can collect the acoustic wave data emitted by the front transducer 11, and pass the collected data through the cable and control. It is transmitted to the measurement host with the data acquisition integrated device;
[0080] like Image 6 , Figure 7 As shown, the orifice fixing device mainly includes an orifice holder 22, a water blocking rubber pad 23, a flange plate 24, a water injection port 25, a pressure relief hole 26, a plug installation port 27, a push rod guide device 28, etc. device composition. Among them, the orifice holder 22 is the same as the hole diameter of the drilled hole, and can be inserted into the hole. The water-blocking rubber pad 23 is installed and fixed on the flange 24. The water-blocking rubber has a certain thickness and elasticity. Four bolt holes 29 are reserved, and four bolt holes 29 are drilled around the drilled hole with an impact drill, and the bolts are screwed in to fix the flange 24 with the rock mass. The rubber pad is deformed under pressure and filled in the flange. 24 and the rock wall, can complete the sealing work;
[0081] The water injection port 25 and the pressure relief are located on the side of the rear of the borehole fixture. Through the water injection port 25, water can be injected into the borehole at a certain flow rate at any time. Increase, when it is greater than a certain value, the pressure relief hole 26 can be pushed open, so that the water flows out from the borehole, and the water flow pressure relief function in the hole is completed;
[0082] As shown in Figure 8(a) and Figure 8(b), the plug installation hole is composed of a water blocking rubber ring, a push rod installation port and a mounting buckle 33, wherein the water blocking rubber ring is divided into No. 1 water blocking ring The rubber ring 30 and the No. 2 rubber ring, the No. 2 rubber ring is located inside the No. 1 rubber ring, and is fixed on the installation buckle 33. After the push rod pushes the plug from the outside, the opening direction of the rubber ring is the same as the pushing direction, and due to the rubber resistance The water ring has a certain elasticity and can be tightly fastened to the push rod to ensure that when the push rod is pushed in the advancing direction, the water in the hole will not flow out;
[0083] As shown in Figures 9(a) and 9(b), the depth sensor mainly includes a rotational speed sensor 34 (sliding type), a shrinking spring 35, a sliding holder 36, a pulley 37 and a high-friction damping cloth 38, wherein the shrinkage Both ends of the spring 35 are respectively installed on the sliding holder 36 and the rotational speed sensor 34 (sliding type), and the two are tightly fixed together by the spring. At the same time, a high friction damping cloth 38 is installed on the runner, which can To ensure that it can complete the rotation speed measurement synchronously with the advancement of the push rod, and finally realize the accurate measurement of the drilling depth.
[0084] like figure 1 As shown in step 1, after geological analysis, select a suitable position for drilling, and the hole diameter of the hole is slightly larger than the diameter of the probe; after the drilling is completed, high-pressure water is used to clear the hole, and the cleaning effect is checked;
[0085] Step 2. Connect the probe of the integrated measurement and control instrument to the No. 1 push rod 17, and seal the connection between the two through the probe and push rod connection fixed cover. In addition, the interior is connected through the push rod connection port 15, and the probe bus is connected. Connect with the cable in the push rod;
[0086] Step 3. Put the probe into the drilled hole until the No. 1 push rod 17 is submerged in the drilled hole by about 30 cm;
[0087] Step 4. Use an impact drill to drill 4 holes of equal size at four positions around the drilled hole, and use bolts to fix the flange 24 on the hole holder 22 on the rock mass to ensure that the water-blocking rubber pad 23 is in place. After being stressed, it can be tightly filled between the rock mass and the flange plate 24, and the gap is impermeable to water; after the orifice holder 22 is installed in the drilled hole, the push rod is extended from the orifice holder 22;
[0088] Step 5. Put the plug on the push rod, push it to the orifice holder 22, and connect with the orifice holder 22 by rotating;
[0089] Step 6. Install the depth sensor on the push rod and push it forward to the drill hole holder;
[0090] Step 7. Extend the cable from the inside of the push rod, and thread the rest of the push rod into the cable in advance;
[0091] Step 8. Connect the cable, connect with the measurement host, and debug, and clear the depth position;
[0092] Step 9. Water is injected into the borehole through the water injection hole. When the pressure relief hole 26 starts to flow out, it means that the hole is filled with water;
[0093] Step 10. Push the push rod forward to ensure a constant speed, and at the same time observe the temperature measurement data, camera results and waveforms through the measurement host;
[0094] Step 11. While ensuring that the probe is pushed into the borehole at a constant speed, arrange for personnel to connect the push rod with the pre-wired cable to the tail of the previous push rod;
[0095] Step 12. Control the instrument through the measurement host to complete data collection; during the detection process, if the camera picture is unclear, control the electric retractable rod to shrink and stretch to complete the clearing of fog and dirt on the glass wall;
[0096] Step 13. When the probe goes deep into the deepest part of the borehole, the top of the probe touches the surrounding rock, so that the pressure collected by the pressure sensor behind the electric shrinkage sensor increases. When it increases to a fixed value, the electric telescopic rod 9 The set program completes the recovery of the probe top to protect the probe from damage;
[0097] Step 14. After completing the detection, stop injecting water into the water injection hole on the orifice holder 22, and open the pressure relief hole, so that the water inside the borehole flows out under the action of gravity, until the pressure relief hole does not flow out. After the water is removed, the next step can be performed;
[0098] Step 15. Disconnect the cable and remove the depth sensor;
[0099] Step 16. Separate the plug from the orifice holder 22 by rotating; extract the plug, and pull the push rod outward at a constant speed;
[0100] Step 17, take out the orifice holder 22, and recover the probe
[0101] Step 18, data processing, mainly includes the following parts;
[0102] 1. Depth correction
[0103] By reading the data of the two rotational speed sensors 34, the data of the rotational speed sensor 34 are extracted at equal time intervals, and the two sets of data in the same time period are compared, and the data with the larger rotational speed is selected in different time periods, and its drilling speed data After splicing into a set of complete rotational speed data, after the drilling speed and runner circumference data processing, the more accurate real-time depth data in the borehole where the probe is located can be obtained;
[0104] 2. Drilling hole wall imaging and acoustic detection
[0105] Through the processing of hole wall camera results, acoustic detection results and depth data, the changes of hole wall camera images with depth and the distribution of rock mass velocity values ​​with depth are obtained.
[0106] 3. Machine learning and data mining processing
[0107] Machine learning mainly includes supervised learning and unsupervised learning. Supervised learning refers to the process of using a set of samples of known categories to adjust the parameters of the classifier to achieve the required performance, also known as supervised training or teacher learning, unsupervised learning. Learning (unsupervised learning) is mainly used to process unclassified and labeled sample sets when designing a classifier. In the data processing in the present invention, the decision tree algorithm in supervised learning and the K-means clustering algorithm in unsupervised learning are used. The Apriori algorithm was used to analyze the correlation between the two processing results.
[0108] The camera data in the hole is processed and analyzed by the decision tree algorithm. The process is: using the image scanning method for the results of the borehole TV data, the number, length and inclination angle of the hole wall cracks and interfaces on the camera path. Scan and identify. Based on these data, the section is divided at equal intervals (0.5m is recommended), and the obtained data information is compared and selected, and the influence degree of parameters such as crack width, crack number, and crack inclination angle on the rock mass strength is determined respectively. Sort for reference, select the features that play a decisive role in the classification of the current data set, and divide them into several data subsets. These data subsets will be distributed on the branch of the first decision point. If the data belong to the same type and have no effect on the rock mass quality, there is no need to further split the dataset. If the data in the data subsets do not belong to the same type, the process of dividing the subset needs to be repeated until all the data of the same type are in one data subset.
[0109]The single-hole acoustic wave data is processed and analyzed by the K-means clustering algorithm. The process is as follows: randomly determine k wave velocity values ​​as the centroid, and then assign each point data value in the wave velocity data set to a cluster. Specifically, as Find the nearest centroid for each data point and assign it to the cluster that the centroid is playing against. After this step, the centroid of each cluster is updated to the average of all points in the cluster. Judgments and classifications are made for each dataset with different mean values.
[0110] The data points are divided by the drilling depth as the coordinates, and the Apriori algorithm is used for correlation analysis of the rock mass distribution with the drilling depth judged by the two methods. Analyzing the set, and forming a comprehensive distribution result of the rock mass under the drilling depth, and then guiding the engineering construction.
[0111] Although the specific embodiments of the present invention have been described above in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, they do not limit the scope of protection of the present invention. Those skilled in the art should understand that on the basis of the technical solutions of the present invention, those skilled in the art do not need to pay creative efforts. Various modifications or deformations that can be made are still within the protection scope of the present invention.


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