An adaptive architecture for electric motors, generators and other electric machines. An adaptive electric machine provides optimal performance by dynamically adapting its controls to changes in user inputs, machine operating conditions and machine operating parameters. Isolating the machine's electromagnetic circuits allows effective control of more independent machine parameters, enabling greater freedom to optimize and providing adaptive motors and generators that are cheaper, smaller, lighter, more powerful, and more efficient than conventional designs. An electric vehicle with in-wheel adaptive motors enables delivery of higher power with lower unsprung mass, giving better torque-density. The motor control system can adapt to the vehicle's operating conditions, including starting, accelerating, turning, braking, and cruising at high speeds, thereby consistently providing higher efficiency. A wind powered adaptive generator can adapt to changing wind conditions, consistently providing optimal performance. An adaptive architecture may improve performance in a wide variety of electric machine applications, particularly those requiring optimal efficiency over a range of operating conditions.