Monopole antenna array source for semiconductor process equipment
A monopole antenna and antenna array technology, which is applied in semiconductor/solid-state device manufacturing, resonant antenna, and slender active unit end feeding, etc., can solve the problem that the microwave source cannot meet strict uniformity, and achieve good temperature Effects of controlling, improving processing speed, and increasing yield
Active Publication Date: 2020-01-17
APPLIED MATERIALS INC
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AI-Extracted Technical Summary
Problems solved by technology
However, microwave sources cannot meet the stringent uniformity required...
 However, microwave power may be delivered to the chamber through a monopole antenna array. Microwaves propagate through the antenna into the chamber. This can alleviate the problem of slots in antennas that produce periodic power deposition patterns. Furthermore, a significant improvement in uniformity can be obtained by, for example, applying power in different phases to the antenna group, thereby mimicking a rotating source.
 Another limitation on the processing rate is the amount of microwave power that can be delivered to the processing chamber without damaging or causing overheating of the gas plate or grid filter. Conventional gas panels provide the vacuum boundary of the chamber and thus may be subject to significant mechanical stress, making the gas panels susceptible to damage due to overheating. Such gas panels can only withstand low microwave power levels. Therefore, some processes (eg, DLC deposition processes) may take hours to achieve the desired DLC film thickness. This problem can be solved by providing a window sheath around each monopole antenna protruding into the plasma chamber, reducing the risk of mechanical stress and increasing the power that can be applied.
 In some embodiments, the base 106 is mechanically rotatable about an axis of rotation that coinc...
A plasma reactor includes a chamber body having an interior space that provides a plasma chamber, a gas distribution port to deliver a processing gas to the plasma chamber, a workpiece support to holda workpiece, an antenna array comprising a plurality of monopole antennas extending partially into the plasma chamber, and an AC power source to supply a first AC power to the plurality of monopole antennas.
Electric discharge tubesSemiconductor/solid-state device manufacturing +3
PhysicsMonopole antenna +8
- Experimental program(1)
 The processing of workpieces, such as semiconductor wafers, can be performed in a plasma reactor. For example, electromagnetic energy, such as RF power or microwave (MW) power, may be employed to generate a plasma in a chamber to perform plasma-based processing (eg, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or plasma Volume Enhanced Reactive Ion Etching (PERIE)). Some processes (eg, deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films) require high plasma ion density and low plasma ion energy. Higher plasma densities require higher source powers and generally result in shorter deposition times.
 The advantage of a microwave source is that it can generate very high plasma ion densities with less plasma ion energy than other sources (for example, inductively coupled RF plasma sources or capacitively coupled RF plasma sources). plasma source). Another advantage of microwave plasma sources is the ability to generate plasma over a wide range of chamber pressures, typically from superatmospheric to 10 -6 Torr or less. This enables microwave plasma processing to be used for a very wide range of processing applications.
 However, many microwave sources cannot meet the stringent uniformity requirements of semiconductor processing. The minimum uniformity may correspond to less than 1% variation in process rate across a 300 mm diameter workpiece. In systems where microwaves are propagated to the chamber through slots in the waveguide, the antenna may have a periodic power deposition pattern that reflects the wave pattern and slot layout of the microwave emission, resulting in a non-uniform processing rate distribution. This prevents the desired uniformity of process rates across the workpiece from being achieved. One technique to reduce uniformity issues is to use rotating antennas in the plasma chamber. Unfortunately, this technology can have various setbacks, such as microwave leakage through the antenna's rotating timing belt slot, and microwave auto-tuning difficulties due to antenna rotation. Furthermore, the gas distribution may not be uniform from the center to the edge of the substrate.
 However, microwave power can be delivered to the chamber through an array of monopole antennas. Microwaves are propagated into the chamber through the antenna. This can alleviate the problem of slots in antennas that create periodic power deposition patterns. Furthermore, a significant improvement in uniformity can be obtained by, for example, applying different phases of power to the antenna group, thereby mimicking a rotating source.
 Another limitation on the processing rate is the amount of microwave power that can be delivered to the processing chamber without damaging or causing overheating of the gas plate or grid filter. Conventional gas plates provide a vacuum boundary for the chamber and thus may be subject to significant mechanical stress, leaving the gas plates susceptible to overheating and damage. Such gas panels can only withstand lower microwave power levels. Therefore, some processes (eg, DLC deposition processes) may take hours to achieve the desired DLC film thickness. This problem can be solved by providing a window sheath around each monopole antenna protruding into the plasma chamber, reducing the risk of mechanical stress and increasing the power that can be applied.
 refer to figure 1 , the plasma reactor 10 includes a chamber body 101 having, for example, a cylindrical side wall 102 to enclose the chamber 100 . The side walls 102 are formed of a material that is opaque to microwaves to confine the microwaves within the cavity. The sidewalls may be conductive material (eg, metal).
 The chamber 100 may be divided into an upper chamber 100a and a lower chamber 100b by a grid filter 112 . The lower chamber 100b is a drift space because there is no substantial electric field in the absence of an applied bias voltage. The side walls 102 may include an upper side wall 102a surrounding the upper chamber 100a and a lower side wall 102b surrounding the lower chamber 100b.
 The top plate 104 may be formed of a conductive material and cover the upper chamber 100a. Top plate 104 may be provided by showerhead 118 .
 The reactor 10 further includes an array 108 of monopole antennas 116 connected to an AC power source 110 configured to generate power at microwave or RF frequencies. Monopole antenna array 108 includes a plurality of monopole antennas 116 extending partially into upper chamber 100a. Antenna 116 is formed of a conductive material (eg, copper or aluminum), or another metal coated with a highly conductive layer. In some embodiments, the antennas 116 protrude in parallel into the upper chamber 100a. The antenna 116 may protrude through the top plate 104 of the chamber body 101 . The bottom surface of each antenna 116 may face the grid filter 112 .
 In some embodiments, the bottom surfaces of the antennas 116 are coplanar (eg, the antennas 116 protrude into the cavity 100 by the same amount). Alternatively, the bottom surfaces of some antennas 116 (eg, antennas in the center of array 108) may be recessed relative to other antennas. In this case, the antennas 116 at the edges of the array 108 protrude further into the chamber 100 than the antennas 116 at the center of the array 108 .
 The antenna array 108 may be divided into antenna groups (eg, groups with equal numbers of antennas). This allows different powers of different phases to be provided to different groups of antennas 116 within antenna array 108 .
 In one example, the perimeter of the antenna array 108 forms a hexagonal configuration (see Figure 5 ). This allows dividing the array into six triangular groups, each with an equal number of antennas (see Image 6 ). The perimeter can also be configured in other shapes (eg, square, pentagon, heptagon, or octagon). The shapes may also be divided into groups (eg, four, five, seven, or eight groups) each covering triangular shape segments.
 Antennas may be arranged in the array 108 at substantially uniform intervals. Within the array 108, the antennas may be arranged using a hexagonal or rectangular pattern (see figure 2 ). The pitch of the antennas in the array may be about 1/2 to 2 inches. The cross-section of the antenna 116 may be of uniform size and shape (eg, the antenna may have a circular cross-section). Alternatively, some antennas may have different cross-sectional dimensions (eg, the antenna at the center may have a larger diameter). The length L of the portion 116c of the antenna 116 protruding into the cavity may be greater than the width W (see Figure 4 ).
 In some embodiments, the antenna protrudes through the showerhead 118 (eg, dual channel showerhead (DCSH)). The showerhead 118 may include a gas distribution plate 120 and a gas plenum plate 122 . The long axis of the antenna 116 may be perpendicular to the lower surface of the showerhead 118 .
 The workpiece support base 106 for supporting the workpiece 124 in the lower chamber 100b has a workpiece support surface 106a. The workpiece support base 106 can be moved in an axial direction, eg, by a linear actuator, to, for example, adjust the height of the workpiece support base in the chamber 100 . The workpiece support surface 106a may face the grid filter 112 . The long axis of the antenna 116 may be perpendicular to the support surface 106a of the support base 106 .
 In some embodiments, susceptor 106 includes one or more heating elements 107 configured to apply heat to workpiece 124 . When the workpiece is supported on the susceptor 106 and the precursor gas (if used) has been introduced into the chamber 100b, the heat from the heating element 107 is sufficient to anneal the workpiece 124. The heating element 107 may be a resistive heating element. With the heating element 107 positioned (eg, embedded in) the pedestal 106, the workpiece 124 is heated by contacting the pedestal. Examples of heating elements 107 include separate heating coils. Wires connect a power source (such as a voltage source) (not shown) to the heating elements, and may connect one or more heating elements 107 to the controller.
 The base 106 may be configured to hold the workpiece 124 such that the front surface 124a of the workpiece faces the grid filter 112 ; the front surface 124a may be parallel to the grid filter 112 . In another example, as discussed in further detail below, the base 106 may be configured such that the front surface 124a of the workpiece faces the antenna array.
 In some embodiments, the base 106 may be mechanically rotatable about an axis of rotation that coincides with the axis of symmetry 106b of the base. Such rotation can improve the plasma uniformity of the process on workpiece 124 . The base 106 can be rotated by a rotation motor (not shown) attached to the base.
AC power source 110 is connected to monopole antenna 116 . For example, power source 110 may be coupled to antenna array 108 via one or more coaxial cables. Power source 1100 may operate in the frequency range of 30 Hz to 30 GHz. For example, power source 110 may generate power at microwave frequencies (eg, 300MHz to 30GHz), RF frequencies (eg, 300kHz to 30MHz), and/or VHF frequencies (eg, 30MHz to 300MHz). The power source 110 is configured or controlled to apply microwave or RF power to the plurality of monopole antennas to generate plasma in the chamber 100 . In some embodiments, the power source 110 may also apply a DC voltage.
 As will be described further below, the AC power source 110 may be configured to generate different phases of AC power on multiple power supply lines and supply power to different sets of monopole antennas 116 through these lines.
 In some embodiments, a conductive shield 134 including a cylindrical sidewall 136 surrounds the upper sidewall 102a and extends above the top plate 104 (eg, above the showerhead 118). The conductive shield 134 may be electrically grounded.
 In some embodiments, the upper gas injector assembly provides process gas into the upper chamber 100a. In some embodiments, the upper gas injector assembly may include a plurality of upper gas injectors 138 to provide gas, eg, from the ceiling 104 of the chamber 100 . Gas injector 138 allows for uniform gas injection into plasma chamber 100a.
 For example, gas is supplied to one or more gas distribution ports 128 from gas source 126 through gas conduit 130 . The gas distribution port 128 may be coupled to the gas plenum. For example, recess 122a in the underside of gas plenum plate 122 may provide a plenum for gas flow from conduit 130 . The gas plenum plate 122 covers the gas distribution plate 120 . The gas distribution plate 120 has a plurality of gas injection orifices 120a extending through the gas distribution plate 120 and fluidly coupled to the gas plenum to distribute the gas into the upper chamber 100a. Portions of orifices 120a and optional recesses 122a may provide upper gas injectors 138 .
 Gas jet orifices are positioned in the spaces between the monopole antennas 116 . For example, refer to figure 2 If the monopole antennas 116 are arranged in a hexagonal array, the gas injection apertures 120a may similarly be arranged in a hexagonal array (eg, each monopole antenna 116 is surrounded by six apertures 120a). Similarly, the recesses 122a in the bottom surface of the gas plenum plate 122 may be honeycomb-shaped, with the antennas 116 extending through non-recessed portions (ie, the center of each cell of the honeycomb).
 although figure 1 The plenum is shown formed by the recesses in the bottom of the plenum plate, but the volume 146 above the array 108 of monopole antennas 116 may provide a plenum for gas supply. In this case, for some embodiments, the plenum plate 122 is omitted and the passageway extends completely through the showerhead 118 (actually the gas distribution plate 120 ) to connect directly to the volume 146 . This volume is closed by a cover 134 and gas will be supplied through a port extending through the cover 134 . Alternatively, the plenum plate 122 may function as a second gas distribution plate as a recess of the plenum, and as multiple gas injection orifices coupled to another plurality of gas injection orifices in the first gas distribution plate 120 . a pathway. In this case, the volume 146 may provide a second process gas plenum overlying the second gas distribution plate 122 and may provide a second process gas supply conduit coupled to the second process gas plenum. This allows two different process gases to be supplied to the chamber. The monopole antenna 116 extends through both the first gas distribution plate 120 and the second gas distribution plate 122 .
 back figure 1 Although a showerhead 118 in the ceiling of the chamber is shown, the gas may alternatively or additionally be supplied through the sidewalls (eg, through apertures in the upper sidewall 102a).
 In some embodiments, the lower gas injector assembly provides process gas into the lower chamber 100b. The lower gas injector assembly may include a plurality of lower gas injectors 158 to provide gas, for example, from the ceiling 104 of the chamber 100 . Gas injector 158 allows for uniform gas injection into plasma chamber 100a. The lower gas injector may be part of the grid filter 112 , in place of the grid filter 112 , or below the grid filter 112 .
 For example, the lower gas injector assembly may be similar to the upper gas injector assembly. More specifically, the grid filter 112 may include a gas distribution plate 150 and a gas plenum plate 152 . The recess 152a in the underside of the gas plenum plate 152 may provide a plenum for gas flow from the conduit 130 through the second distribution port 148 . The gas distribution plate 150 has a plurality of gas injection orifices 150a extending through the gas distribution plate 120 and fluidly coupled to the gas plenum to distribute the gas into the lower chamber 100b.
 Again, although gas injection orifices 150a in grid filter 112 are shown, gas may alternatively or additionally be supplied through sidewalls, such as through pores in lower sidewall 102b.
 In such an embodiment, the gas species and gas flow rates entering the upper chamber 100a and the lower chamber 100b are independently controlled. In one example, an inert gas is supplied into the upper chamber 100a and a process gas is supplied into the lower chamber 100b. The inert gas flow rate can be controlled to substantially prevent the introduction or diffusion of gas from the lower portion 100b into the upper chamber 100a to provide substantial chemical isolation of the upper chamber 100a. The gas delivery system may include an exhaust system 140 (eg, including a vacuum pump) to exhaust the precursor gas from the upper chamber 100a, thereby depressurizing the chamber 100.
 In some embodiments, the AC power source 110 includes multiple auto-tuners, each coupled to a different monopole antenna 116 . The level of RF power from RF generator 110 is highly controllable. This may allow the plasma density in the upper chamber 100a to be substantially controlled (enhanced) by the RF power from the RF power generator. Therefore, the formation of lattice defects or voids in the deposited material can be reduced.
 In some embodiments, the grid filter 112 is in the shape of a flat disk. A grid filter may extend through the chamber 100 . The grid filter 112 is formed in an array with a plurality of openings 112-1. Openings 112 - 1 may be evenly spaced across grid filter 112 . The axial thickness T of the grid filter 112 and the diameter d of the plurality of openings 112 - 1 may be selected to facilitate the flow of high-energy directional beam electrons through the grid filter 112 while preventing non-transportation through the grid filter 112 . The flow of beam (low energy) electrons and plasma ions.
 The plasma in the lower chamber 100b may have different characteristics than the plasma in the upper chamber 100a. The grid filter 112 may act as a filter to substantially electrically isolate the upper chamber 100a and the lower chamber 100b from each other. In some embodiments, the grid filter 112 is formed of a conductive or semiconductive material. For example, the grid filter 112 may be metal (such as aluminum). The grid filter 112 may be connected to ground, or may be electrically floating. Depending on whether the substrate is grounded or RF thermal, the grid filter 112 may be RF thermal or grounded. In some embodiments, the grid filter 112 is formed of a non-conductive material. In some embodiments, the grid filter 112 is coated with a process compatible material (such as silicon, carbon, silicon carbon compounds, or silicon oxide compounds) or oxide materials (eg, alumina, yttria, or zirconia) .
 now refer to image 3 , the single-chamber plasma reactor 10 includes a plasma chamber 100 containing a workpiece support 106 . Generally, in addition to those described below, image 3 reactor with figure 1 the same reactor. For example, plasma reactors can use the same array of monopole antennas.
 and figure 1 The embodiment shown is different, image 3 The plasma reactor shown in does not distinguish between upper and lower chambers; rather, there is no grid filter extending across the chambers. Therefore, the reactor has only a single chamber 100 . So the monopole array 108 will generate the plasma in the same chamber as the workpiece support. The chamber 100 is surrounded by side walls 102 formed from a microwave opaque material such as metal. In some embodiments, the sidewall 102 includes a transparent window, or is a transparent material such as a dielectric material.
 In this example, the gas injector assembly includes a plurality of gas injectors 138 to distribute gas directly into the plasma chamber 100 where the workpiece 124 is located. Gas is supplied from gas source 126 through gas conduit 130 . One or more gas distribution ports 128 are coupled to a gas plenum provided by a recess 122a in the underside of the gas plenum plate 122 . The gas plenum plate 122 covers the gas distribution plate 120 . The gas distribution plate 120 has a plurality of gas injection orifices 120a extending through the gas distribution plate 120 and fluidly coupled to the gas plenum. Orifice 120a (optionally with a portion of recess 122a ) may provide a gas injector 138 to distribute gas into chamber 100 . Gas jet orifices are positioned in the spaces between the monopole antennas 116 .
 The AC power source 110 provides the MW frequencies required by the monopole antenna array 108 . Monopole antennas 116 extend in parallel into plasma chamber 100 . Potential advantages of this configuration are the ability to provide high density plasma to processes requiring high energy, such as DLC deposition, and the ability to increase plasma efficiency and wafer temperature.
 now refer to Figure 4 , the dual-channel showerhead 118 includes a gas inflatable portion 122 and a gas distribution plate 120 . In one example, the showerhead is made of, for example, aluminum. In some embodiments, the showerhead includes a disk-shaped plate with perforations on the bottom surface to provide orifices 120a for evenly distributing the reactant gas over a second parallel flat surface such as a grid filter or workpiece . In some embodiments, the orifice provides a nozzle with a narrow passage 120b to lead from the plenum at the bottom surface of the showerhead 118 to the flared nozzle 120c.
 Additionally, the showerhead 118 includes apertures 118a extending from the top surface to the bottom surface, each aperture sized to hold a separate monopole antenna 116 . The spacing between the orifices 118a can be selected to effectively maximize the number of antennas 116 in the showerhead 118 considering power and current. For example, the spacing between antennas 116 may be such that adjacent antennas 116 are in close proximity but not touching (eg, less than 10 mm apart). Antennas 116 should not be so close together that a short circuit may occur. For example, adjacent antennas 116 may be separated by greater than 2 mm.
 like Figure 4 As shown, each monopole antenna 116 may have a cylindrical shaft 116a protruding into the chamber 100a. However, monopole antennas of different shapes and lengths may be suitable for different purposes and applications during deposition or etching processes. For example, if Figure 5 As shown, the portion 216a of the monopole antenna protruding into the cavity 100a may have a conical shape. back Figure 4, the antenna 116 may have an outwardly projecting flange or shoulder 116b. The flange or shoulder 116 may be a rounded protrusion extending laterally from the shaft 116a. A flange or shoulder 116 is positioned over spray head 118 . Aperture 118a allows shoulder 116b of monopole antenna 116 to rest on the top surface of showerhead 118 while allowing shaft 116a to protrude out of showerhead 118 into plasma chamber 100 . This may fix the vertical position of the bottom of the antenna 116 within the chamber 100 .
 Monopole antenna 116 can reach elevated temperatures (eg, 30°C to 400°C) due to the application of high voltages during processing. Temperature control may be provided through channels (not shown) in the support of the antenna (eg, channels in the gas distribution plate 120). The channels carry coolant to absorb excess heat from the antenna 116 and surrounding components. A heat exchanger located outside the chamber can be used to remove heat from the coolant.
 Each monopole antenna 116 is partially surrounded by an insulator dielectric sheath 152 . More specifically, the sheath 152 may tightly cover at least the portion 116c of the antenna 116 that extends into the cavity 110 . The sheath may also cover the entire shaft 116a (eg, the entire portion extending through the gas distributor 120 and the plenum 122 and the portion extending into the chamber 100a). The sheath 152 is transparent to the radiation produced by the monopole antenna (eg, the sheath 152 may be a microwave or RF transparent window sheath).
 The sheath 152 may include a cylindrical section 152a surrounding the axis 116a of the monopole antenna 116 and a base plate 152b covering the bottom of the monopole antenna 116 . The sheath 152 may also include an outwardly projecting flange or shoulder 152c extending from the top of the cylindrical section 152 . The flange or shoulder 152 separates the flange 116b of the monopole antenna 116 from the top surface of the showerhead 118 16b. The conical monopole 216 is surrounded by a conical sheath 252 (see Figure 5 ).
 The window sheath 152 may be formed of an electrically insulating material such as ceramic, alumina, or quartz. The jacket 152 can electrically isolate the antenna 116 from the gas distribution plate 120 and the gas plenum plate 122, and can protect the conductors from the environment in the chamber 100a. The sheath may also prevent contamination of the process (eg, metal sputtered off the antenna 116).
 refer to Image 6 and Figure 7 As discussed above, the AC power source 110 may be configured to supply power to different sets of monopole antennas 116 at a plurality of different relative phases. To provide different groups, the monopole antennas 116 may be phase controlled individually or in groups. Power source 110 may include a single signal source 306, the output of which is split and then phase shifted (eg, using analog circuitry). Alternatively, the power source 110 may include multiple power sources (eg, multiple digital signal generators 306 ) to generate multiple signals of different phases.
 Typically, where the array 108 is divided into N groups, the AC power supply can generate N different phases of power (eg, the N phases are 360/N degrees apart). The AC power source may be configured to generate AC power in phases 360/N apart on the N supply lines. The antennas 116 may be divided into different numbers of groups 308/408 (such as 4, 5, or more groups). The antennas of each group may occupy a spatially contiguous area of the antenna array.
 Figure 5 An example of an array with groups arranged in linear rows is shown. More specifically, Figure 5 An example of a linear phased array is shown. The array can be divided into N groups 308 . Groups may be provided by different rows 308 of antennas 116 (eg, each area may cover a substantially linear strip across the array). N conductor wires 304 may be used to connect power supply 110 to N groups of antennas 116 to provide a different phase to each group of antennas. Figure 5 The monopole antenna array 108 is shown arranged in a hexagonal configuration, but this is not required.
 Image 6 An example of an array with groups angularly spaced about a central axis is shown. For example, each area can cover a circular sector; if the N areas are of equal size, the radian will be 360/N degrees. In the example shown, the antennas 116 are divided into six different groups 408 . Each set 408 is coupled to a different conductor wire 404, providing a different phase to each set of antennas. Groups can be triangular regions of equal area on the array.
 Regions that are spatially adjacent to each other may be supplied with power from sequentially adjacent phases of a plurality of different phases. For example, in Image 6 In , there are six regions 410, and the signals applied to two adjacent regions (eg, regions 410-1 and 410-2) are separated by 60°. For example, powers of relative phases of 0°, 60°, 120°, 180°, 240°, and 300° may be applied to regions 410-1, 410-2, 410-3, 410-4, 410- 5, and 410-6.
 As another example, in Figure 5 , there are N regions 310, and the signals applied to two adjacent regions 310-1 and 310-2 are separated by N/360°. For example, powers of relative phases of 0°, (1/N)*360°, . . . and (N-1/N)*360° may be applied to regions 310-1, 310-2, .. . and 310-N. Although in these examples the phases are equally spaced apart, this is not required.
 A polar phased array or a linear phased array for controlling the monopole antenna 116 can be used with different configurations. For example, if Image 6 As shown, the polar phased array can transmit different signals to groups of antennas 116 in increments of 60 using a six-phase power control configuration via digital signal generator 406 . Similar to having a rotating antenna, this increases plasma uniformity. In another example, as Figure 5 As shown, the digital signal generator 306 can be used to use a linear phased array for an n-phase power control configuration. This allows a high degree of controllability of the antenna frequency and thus a more uniform plasma.
 Phase-shifting the power applied to the different antenna groups can increase the uniformity of plasma deposition. In fact, despite the extremely high rotation rates, this method mimics a mechanically rotating rotating antenna during the plasma deposition process. The phase shift frequency (ie, the frequency at which a given region returns to the same phase offset) can be set between 1 and 1000 Hz.
 Figure 8 The implementation is similar to Figure 7 , but includes an additional center antenna 420 located at the center of the array 108 of monopole antennas 116 . The center antenna 420 may be larger than the other antennas 116 (eg, larger diameter in a plane parallel to the array 108 and the support surface 106a). Center antenna 420 may be driven with a single-phase signal (eg, generated by a digital signal generator). The advantage of the center antenna 116 is to provide power adjustment for center-to-edge uniformity tuning in the process.
 As an alternative or in addition to the above-described phase shifting, power may be applied to the antenna in a pulsed manner. For example, power can be applied in pulses using a rate of 1 to 1000 Hz. The pulses may have a duty cycle of 5% to 95% (eg, 25% to 75%). For a given on-time of the duty cycle, power at RF or microwave frequencies (eg, 300 kHz to 30 GHz) can be applied.
 In some embodiments, plasma reactors may be used for deposition of films in PECVD processes. In such a process, the deposited layer may have some empty atomic lattice sites. As additional layers are deposited, the additional layers cover the empty lattice sites, thus forming voids in the crystalline structure of the deposited material. Such voids are lattice defects and impair the quality of the deposited material. microwave sources (such as, figure 1 used in embodiments of ) to generate plasmas with very low ion energy, and therefore do not interfere with the lattice structure (including lattice defects) of the deposited material. Such a microwave source can have a frequency of 2.45 GHz, producing plasma with negligible ion energy levels.
 Generally, the frequency of microwaves is not as accurate and has fluctuations of about ±2%. Because the frequency of microwaves has fluctuations, the reflectivity of the microwave paths may change significantly, resulting in changes in the electrical power of the microwaves supplied to the antenna and changes in the plasma density. Therefore, in order to control the plasma density according to the electric power of the reflected waves, it is necessary to precisely monitor the frequency of the microwaves to compensate for changes in the electric power of the reflected waves due to frequency fluctuations.
 Although this document contains many specific implementation details, these should not be construed as limitations on the scope of any invention or what may be claimed, but rather as descriptions of specific features of specific implementations of particular inventions. Certain features that are described in this document in the context of separate implementations can also be implemented in combination in a single implementation. Conversely, various features that are described in the context of a single implementation can also be implemented in multiple implementations separately or in any suitable subcombination. Furthermore, although the above features may be described as functioning in certain combinations and even claimed as such, in some cases one or more features from the claimed combination may be removed from the combination while the claimed A combination of can involve a subcombination or a variation of a subcombination.
 A number of implementations have been described. However, it should be understood that various modifications can be made.
 Accordingly, other implementations are within the scope of the following claims.
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