Methods and apparatus for orthodontic treatment planning that involve determining an initial position of an orthodontic structure, determining an altered position, and generating response surface data using a mathematical relationship between the positions. The mathematical relationship may be defined by a number of parameters useful for determining one or more of the stress, strain, force, and moment associated with movement of the orthodontic structure. The mathematical relationship between the initial position and the altered position may be defined using a finite element analysis, empirically determined, or using other computational methodologies such as a finite difference methodology. The mathematical relationship may also be defined using an analytical methodology, such as elasticity and/or plasticity methodologies. Response surface data may be generated as a teaching aid, treatment planning aid, table, or other useful form, which may be useful, for example, for designing an orthodontic appliance, verifying an orthodontic prescription, and/or planning the prescription.