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2005 results about "Hash function" patented technology

A hash function is any function that can be used to map data of arbitrary size to fixed-size values. The values returned by a hash function are called hash values, hash codes, digests, or simply hashes. The values are used to index a fixed-size table called a hash table. Use of a hash function to index a hash table is called hashing or scatter storage addressing.

Internet database system

An incrementally-scalable database system and method. The system architecture enables database servers to be scaled by adding resources, such as additional servers, without requiring that the system be taken offline. Such scaling includes both adding one or more computer servers to a given server cluster, which enables an increase in database read transaction throughput, and adding one or more server clusters to the system configuration, which provides for increased read and write transaction throughput. The system also provides for load balancing read transactions across each server cluster, and load balancing write transactions across a plurality of server clusters. The system architecture includes an application server layer including one or more computers on which an application program(s) is running, a database server layer comprising two or more server clusters that each include two or more computer servers with replicated data, and an intermediate "virtual transaction" layer that includes at least two computers that facilitate database transactions with one or more databases operating in the database server layer. Data in the database(s) are evenly distributed across the server clusters in fragmented mutually exclusive subsets of data based on a hashing function. An application program interface is provided so as to enable application programs to perform a full range of database transactions without regard for where data is stored, or what database(s) is operating in the database server layer.

Method and apparatus for web caching

A method and apparatus for web caching is disclosed. The method and apparatus may be implemented in hardware, software or firmware. Complementary cache management modules, a coherency module and a cache module(s) are installed complementary gateways for data and for clients respectively. The coherency management module monitors data access requests and or response and determines for each: the uniform resource locator (URL) of the requested web page, the URL of the requestor and a signature. The signature is computed using cryptographic techniques and in particular a hash function for which the input is the corresponding web page for which a signature is to be generated. The coherency management module caches these signatures and the corresponding URL and uses the signatures to determine when a page has been updated. When, on the basis of signature comparisons it is determined that a page has been updated the coherency management module sends a notification to all complementary cache modules. Each cache module caches web pages requested by the associated client(s) to which it is coupled. The notification from the cache management module results in the cache module(s) which are the recipient of a given notice updating their tag table with a stale bit for the associated web page. The cache module(s) use this information in the associated tag tables to determine which pages they need to update. The cache modules initiate this update during intervals of reduced activity in the servers, gateways, routers, or switches of which they are a part. All clients requesting data through the system of which each cache module is a part are provided by the associated cache module with cached copies of requested web pages.

Method and system for authorizing a client computer to access a server computer

The present invention includes a client computer, a first server computer, and a second server computer. The first server provides an authorization ticket containing a time stamp to the client computer when the client computer is authorized to access the first server. An elapsed time counter is started at the client computer when access is provided to the first server. When a request is received at the client computer to access the second server, the client computer determines the session length based upon the elapsed time counter. The client computer calculates a hash value for the authorization ticket, the session length, and a secret shared with the second server computer. The client computer transmits a login request to the second server including the authorization ticket, the session length, and the hash. The second server decrypts the authorization ticket and retrieves a copy of the shared secret. The second server executes a hash function on the authorization ticket, the session length, and the shared secret. The second server then compares the computed hash to the hash value received from the second client application. If the two hash values are identical, the second server retrieves the time stamp from the authorization ticket and adds the session length to the time stamp. The second server then compares the resulting value to the current time. If the resulting value and the current time are within a preset threshold value, the client computer is provided.

Method and device for inserting and authenticating a digital signature in digital data

A method for inserting a digital signature into digital data is provided. The digital data has bits and the method includes the steps of: assigning predetermined bits of the digital data for receiving the digital signature; signing the digital data excluding the predetermined bits resulting in the digital signature; and inserting the digital signature into the predetermined bits of the digital data for subsequent authentication of the digital data. Also provided is a method for authenticating digital data having the embedded digital signature in the predetermined bits of the digital data including the steps of: extracting the digital signature from the predetermined bits; decrypting the digital signature from the digital data resulting in a first hash; applying a known one-way hashing function used by an encoder of the digital data to the digital data excluding the predetermined bits resulting in a second hash; and comparing the first hash to the second hash wherein if the first hash matches the second hash the digital data is authentic. In a preferred version of the methods of the present invention, the method further includes the step of inserting associated data into the digital data prior to the signing step such that the digital signature authenticates both the associated data as well as the digital data. Preferably, the associated data is inserted into the bits of the digital data excluding the predetermined bits.
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