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21101results about "Biological substance pretreatments" patented technology

Electrochemical cell

A method for determining the concentration of a reduced (or oxidised) form of a redox species in an electrochemical cell of the kind comprising a working electrode and a counter electrode spaced from the working electrode by a predetermined distance, said method comprising the steps of: (1) applying an electric potential difference between the electrodes; (2) selecting the potential of the working electrode such that the rate of electro-oxidation of the reduced form (or electro-reduction of the oxidised form) of the species is diffusion controlled, (3) selecting the spacing between the working electrode and the counter electrode so that reaction products from the counter electrode arrive at the working electrode; (4) determining current as a function of time after application of the potential and prior to achievement of a steady state; (5) estimating the magnitude of the steady state current, and (6) obtaining from the change in current with time and the magnitude of the steady state current, a value indicative of the diffusion coefficient and/or of the concentration of the reduced form (or the oxidised form) of the species. Also disclosed is an apparatus for determining the concentration of a redox species in an electrochemical cell comprising: an electrochemical cell having a working electrode and a counter (or counter/reference) electrode, means for applying and electric potential difference between said electrodes, means for measuring the change in current with time, and characterised in that the working electrode is spaced from the counter electrode by less than 500 mum.

Combined lancet and electrochemical analyte-testing apparatus

An apparatus for detection and quantitation of an electrochemically-detect- able analyte, such as glucose, in blood or interstitial fluid includes a meter unit, a lancet and an electrochemical sensor. Of these components, the meter is preferably reusable, while the lancet and the electrochemical sensor are preferably incorporated in assemblies intended for single-use. The meter unit has a housing, within which a lancet is engaged with a mechanism for moving then lancet; a connector disposed within the housing for engaging an electrochemical sensor specific for the analyte and transmitting a signal indicative of the amount of analyte, and a display operatively-associated with a connector for displaying the amount of the analyte to user. The electrochemical sensor is adapted for detection of a particular analyte. In addition, the electrochemical sensor has an absorptive member for uptake of a sample of blood or interstitial fluid. In one version, the lancet moves from a initial position to a piercing position in which skin of the user is pierced and optionally back to a retracted position. The electrochemical sensor is disposed such that the absorptive member takes up a sample from the pierced skin of the user when it is pierced by the lancet without movement of the apparatus. In an alternative version, the lancet is a hollow cannula through which blood or interstitial fluid is transported from the puncture site to an absorbent portion of the electrochemical sensor. In either version, the apparatus provides single-step operation in which sample acquisition and analysis occur as a result of the single action of pressing the apparatus against the users skin.

Membrane suitable for use in an analyte sensor, analyte sensor, and associated method

A multifunctional membrane is provided. The multifunctional membrane is suitable for use in an analyte sensor. In a particular application, the multifunctional membrane may be used in connection with an amperometric biosensor, such as a transcutaneous amperometric biosensor. Some functions of the membrane are associated with properties of membrane itself, which is comprised of crosslinked polymers containing heterocyclic nitrogen groups. For example, the membrane, by virtue of its polymeric composition, may regulate the flux of an analyte to a sensor. Such regulation generally improves the kinetic performance of the sensor over a broad range of analyte concentration. Other functions of the membrane are associated with functional components, such as a superoxide-dismutating/catalase catalyst, either in the form of an enzyme or an enzyme mimic, that can be bound to the scaffold provided by the membrane. The effect of any such enzyme or enzyme mimic is to lower the concentration of a metabolite, such as superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide, in the immediate vicinity of the sensing layer of the biosensor. Lowering the concentrations of such metabolites, which are generally deleterious to the function of the sensor, generally protects or enhances biosensor integrity and performance. The membrane is thus an important tool for use in connection with analyte sensors, amperometric sensors, biosensors, and particularly, transcutaneous biosensors. A membrane-covered sensor and a method for making same are also provided.

Apparatus and methods for analyte measurement and immuno assay

The present invention relates to an apparatus for conducting a variety of assays for the determination of analytes in liquid samples, and relates to the methods for such assays. In particular, the invention relates to a single-use cartridge designed to be adaptable to a variety of real-time assay protocols, preferably assays for the determination of analytes in biological samples using immunosensors or other ligand/ligand receptor-based biosensor embodiments. The cartridge provides novel features for processing a metered portion of a sample, for precise and flexible control of the movement of a sample or second fluid within the cartridge, for the amending of solutions with additional compounds during an assay, and for the construction of immunosensors capable of adaptation to diverse analyte measurements. The disclosed device and methods of use enjoy substantial benefits over the prior art, including simplicity of use by an operator, rapid in situ determinations of one or more analytes, and single-use methodology that minimizes the risk of contamination of both operator and patient. The disclosed invention is adaptable to the point-of-care clinical diagnostic field, including use in accident sites, emergency rooms, surgery, nursing homes, intensive care units, and non-medical environments.

Capillary immunoassay and device therefor comprising mobilizable particulate labelled reagents

An analytical test device useful for example in pregnancy testing, comprises a hollow casing (500) constructed of moisture-impervious solid material, such as plastics materials, containing a dry porous carrier (510) which communicates indirectly with the exterior of the casing via a bibulous sample receiving member (506) which protrudes from the casing such that a liquid test sample can be applied to the receiving member and permeate therefrom to the porous carrier, the carrier containing in a first zone a labelled specific binding reagent is freely mobile within the porous carrier when in the moist state, and in a second zone spatially distinct from the first zone unlabelled specific binding reagent for the same analyte which unlabelled reagent is permanently immobilised on the carrier material and is therefore not mobile in the moist state, the two zones being arranged such that liquid sample applied to the porous carrier can permeate via the first zone into the second zone, and the device incorporating means, such as an aperture (508) in the casing, enabling the extent (if any) to which the labelled reagent becomes bound in the second zone to be observed. Preferably the device includes a removable cap for the protruding bibulous member.
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