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2537results about "Sampling" patented technology

Electrochemical cell

A method for determining the concentration of a reduced (or oxidised) form of a redox species in an electrochemical cell of the kind comprising a working electrode and a counter electrode spaced from the working electrode by a predetermined distance, said method comprising the steps of: (1) applying an electric potential difference between the electrodes; (2) selecting the potential of the working electrode such that the rate of electro-oxidation of the reduced form (or electro-reduction of the oxidised form) of the species is diffusion controlled, (3) selecting the spacing between the working electrode and the counter electrode so that reaction products from the counter electrode arrive at the working electrode; (4) determining current as a function of time after application of the potential and prior to achievement of a steady state; (5) estimating the magnitude of the steady state current, and (6) obtaining from the change in current with time and the magnitude of the steady state current, a value indicative of the diffusion coefficient and/or of the concentration of the reduced form (or the oxidised form) of the species. Also disclosed is an apparatus for determining the concentration of a redox species in an electrochemical cell comprising: an electrochemical cell having a working electrode and a counter (or counter/reference) electrode, means for applying and electric potential difference between said electrodes, means for measuring the change in current with time, and characterised in that the working electrode is spaced from the counter electrode by less than 500 mum.

Membrane suitable for use in an analyte sensor, analyte sensor, and associated method

A multifunctional membrane is provided. The multifunctional membrane is suitable for use in an analyte sensor. In a particular application, the multifunctional membrane may be used in connection with an amperometric biosensor, such as a transcutaneous amperometric biosensor. Some functions of the membrane are associated with properties of membrane itself, which is comprised of crosslinked polymers containing heterocyclic nitrogen groups. For example, the membrane, by virtue of its polymeric composition, may regulate the flux of an analyte to a sensor. Such regulation generally improves the kinetic performance of the sensor over a broad range of analyte concentration. Other functions of the membrane are associated with functional components, such as a superoxide-dismutating/catalase catalyst, either in the form of an enzyme or an enzyme mimic, that can be bound to the scaffold provided by the membrane. The effect of any such enzyme or enzyme mimic is to lower the concentration of a metabolite, such as superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide, in the immediate vicinity of the sensing layer of the biosensor. Lowering the concentrations of such metabolites, which are generally deleterious to the function of the sensor, generally protects or enhances biosensor integrity and performance. The membrane is thus an important tool for use in connection with analyte sensors, amperometric sensors, biosensors, and particularly, transcutaneous biosensors. A membrane-covered sensor and a method for making same are also provided.

Analyte test device

An analyte test device is constructed as an integrated, single-use, disposable cartridge which can be releasably installed into a compatible analyte test monitor. In use, the device can be used in conjunction with the monitor to lance the skin of a patient to create a blood sample, express the blood sample from the wound site using vacuum forces and calculate the concentration of a particular analyte in the expressed blood sample. In one embodiment, the device includes a base which includes a top surface and a bottom surface. The base is also shaped to define an aperture which extends transversely through its top and bottom surfaces. An electrochemical test sensor is affixed to the base in such a manner so that a vacuum path is at least partially defined between the base and the test sensor, the vacuum path being in fluid communication with the aperture. A cover is affixed to the top surface of the base over the aperture, the cover comprising a flexible dome-shaped member and a lancet coupled to the member, the lancet being orientated such that its longitudinal axis extends at an approximate right angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the test sensor. The bottom surface of the base is shaped to include a skin receiving surface which at least partially defines the aperture in the base, the skin receiving surface having a steep inward contour to distend the skin of the patient when pressed thereagainst.

Electrochemical biosensor strip for analysis of liquid samples

A biosensor in the form of a strip. In one embodiment, the biosensor strip comprises an electrode support, a first electrode, i.e., a working electrode, a second electrode, i.e., a counter electrode, and a third electrode, i.e., a reference electrode. Each of the electrodes is disposed on and supported by the electrode support. Each of the electrodes is spaced apart from the other two electrodes. The biosensor strip can include a covering layer, which defines an enclosed space over the electrodes. This enclosed space includes a zone where an analyte in the sample reacts with reagent(s) deposited at the working electrode. This zone is referred to as the reaction zone. The covering layer has an aperture for receiving a sample for introduction into the reaction zone. The biosensor strip can also include at least one layer of mesh interposed in the enclosed space between the covering layer and the electrodes in the reaction zone. This layer of mesh facilitates transporting of the sample to the electrodes in the reaction zone. In another embodiment, a biosensor strip can be constructed to provide a configuration that will allow the sample to be introduced to the reaction zone by action of capillary force. In this embodiment, the layer of mesh can be omitted. The invention also provides a method for determining the concentration of glucose in a sample of whole blood by using the biosensor of this invention.
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