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5082 results about "Irritation" patented technology

Irritation, in biology and physiology, is a state of inflammation or painful reaction to allergy or cell-lining damage. A stimulus or agent which induces the state of irritation is an irritant. Irritants are typically thought of as chemical agents (for example phenol and capsaicin) but mechanical, thermal (heat), and radiative stimuli (for example ultraviolet light or ionising radiations) can also be irritants. Irritation also has non-clinical usages referring to bothersome physical or psychological pain or discomfort.

Microneedle device for extraction and sensing of bodily fluids

Microneedle devices are provided for controlled sampling of biological fluids in a minimally-invasive, painless, and convenient manner. The microneedle devices permit in vivo sensing or withdrawal of biological fluids from the body, particularly from or through the skin or other tissue barriers, with minimal or no damage, pain, or irritation to the tissue. The microneedle device includes one or more microneedles, preferably in a three-dimensional array, a substrate to which the microneedles are connected, and at least one collection chamber and/or sensor in communication with the microneedles. Preferred embodiments further include a means for inducing biological fluid to be drawn through the microneedles and into the collection chamber for analysis. In a preferred embodiment, this induction is accomplished by use of a pressure gradient, which can be created for example by selectively increasing the interior volume of the collection chamber, which includes an elastic or movable portion engaged to a rigid base. Preferred biological fluids for withdrawal and/or sensing include blood, lymph, interstitial fluid, and intracellular fluid. Examples of analytes in the biological fluid to be measured include glucose, cholesterol, bilirubin, creatine, metabolic enzymes, hemoglobin, heparin, clotting factors, uric acid, carcinoembryonic antigen or other tumor antigens, reproductive hormones, oxygen, pH, alcohol, tobacco metabolites, and illegal drugs.

Penetration Enhancer Combinations for Transdermal Delivery

A high throughput screening and isolation system identifies rare enhancer mixtures from a candidate pool of penetration enhancer combinations. The combinations are screened for high penetration but low irritation potential using a unique data mining method to find new potent and safe chemical penetration enhancer combinations. The members of a library of chemical penetration enhancer combinations are screened with a high throughput device to identify “hot spots”, particular combinations that show higher chemical penetration enhancement compared to neighboring compositions. The irritation potentials of the hot spot combinations are measured to identify combinations that also show low irritation potential. A active component, such as a drug, is then combined with the combination in a formulation which is tested for the ability of the drug to penetrate into or through skin. It is then assessed whether the formulation can deliver the quantity of drug required, and animal tests are conducted to confirm in vivo the ability of the chemical penetration enhancer combinations to facilitate transport of sufficient active molecules across the skin to achieve therapeutic levels of the active molecule in the animal's blood. The invention provides specific unique and rare mixtures of chemical penetration enhancers that enhance skin permeability to hydrophilic macromolecules by more than 50-fold without inducing skin irritation, such as combinations of sodium laurel ether sulfate and 1-phenyl piperazine, and combinations of N-lauryl sarcosine and Span 20/sorbitan monolaurate.
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