Controlled-specimen-sampling oral devices are described, implanted or inserted into an oral cavity, built onto a prosthetic tooth crown, a denture plate, braces, a dental implant, or the like. The devices are replaced as needed. The controlled specimen sampling may be passive, based on a dosage form, or electro-mechanically controlled, for a high-precision, intelligent, specimen sampling. Additionally, the controlled sampling may be any one of the following: sampling in accordance with a preprogrammed regimen, sampling at a controlled rate, delayed sampling, pulsatile sampling, chronotherapeutic sampling, closed-loop sampling, responsive to a sensor's input, sampling on demand from a personal extracorporeal system, sampling regimen specified by a personal extracorporeal system, sampling on demand from a monitoring center, via a personal extracorporeal system, and sampling regimen specified by a monitoring center, via a personal extracorporeal system. Specimen collection in the oral cavity may be assisted or induced by a transport mechanism, such as any one of, or a combination of iontophoresis, electroosmosis, electrophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, and ablation. The oral devices require replacement at relatively long intervals of weeks or months. The oral devices and methods for controlled specimen sampling apply to humans and animals.