The invention provides high-strength and high-toughness reactive powder concrete of a carbon doped nano-tube. The high-strength and high-toughness reactive powder concrete is prepared by taking cement, a carbon nano-tube, silica fume, a water reducing agent, silica sand, coal ash, quartz powder, steel fiber and water as raw materials, wherein all the components in the mixture are calculated in parts by mass: 1000-1200 parts of cement, 250-350 parts of silica fume, 250-350 parts of slag powder, 40-50 parts of water reducing agent, 1200-1400 parts of silica sand, 180-230 parts of water, 190-230 parts of steel fiber, 180-250 parts of coal ash, 80-120 parts of quartz powder, 0.1-5 parts of carbon-nano-tube dispersing agent and 1-10 parts of carbon nano-tube powder. The invention also provides a preparation method of the high-strength and high-toughness reactive powder concrete. The reactive powder concrete obtained by the invention has the high compression strength of 250-300MPa and breaking strength of 45-60MPa, which are higher than the 200-level related performances of the traditional RPC (Reactive Powder Concrete). Meanwhile, the initial cracking strength of the reactive powder concrete material prepared by using the carbon nano-tube is greatly improved and is up to 10MPa in a direct stretching state, and the tensile strain corresponding to peak stress is up to more than 0.5%, so that the toughness and strength of the traditional RPC material are greatly improved.