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4075 results about "Vitrification" patented technology

Vitrification (from Latin vitreum, "glass" via French vitrifier) is the transformation of a substance into a glass, that is to say a non-crystalline amorphous solid. In the production of ceramics, vitrification is responsible for its impermeability to water.

Biodegradable polymer films and sheets suitable for use as laminate coatings as well as wraps and other packaging materials

Biodegradable polymer blends suitable for laminate coatings, wraps and other packaging materials manufactured from at least one "hard" biopolymer and at least one "soft" biopolymer. "Hard" biopolymers tend to be more brittle and rigid and typically have a glass transition temperature greater than about 10° C. "Soft" biopolymers tend to be more flexible and pliable and typically have a glass transition temperature less than about 0° C. While hard and soft polymers each possess certain intrinsic benefits, certain blends of hard and soft polymers have been discovered which possess synergistic properties superior to those of either hard or soft polymers by themselves. Biodegradable polymers include polyesters, polyesteramides and thermoplastically processable starch. The polymer blends may optionally include an inorganic filler. Films and sheets made from the polymer blends may be textured so as to increase the bulk hand feel. Wraps will typically be manufactured so as to have good "dead-fold" properties so as to remain in a wrapped position and not spring back to an "unwrapped" and planar form. Laminate films will typically have good water vapor barrier properties as measured by the their Water Vapor Permeability Coefficient (WVPC).

Modified Polylactic Acid Fibers

A method for forming biodegradable fibers is provided. The method includes blending polylactic acid with a polyepoxide modifier to form a thermoplastic composition, extruding the thermoplastic composition through a die, and thereafter passing the extruded composition through a die to form a fiber. Without intending to be limited by theory, it is believed that the polyepoxide modifier reacts with the polylactic acid and results in branching of its polymer backbone, thereby improving its melt strength and stability during fiber spinning without significantly reducing glass transition temperature. The reaction-induced branching can also increase molecular weight, which may lead to improved fiber ductility and the ability to better dissipate energy when subjected to an elongation force. To minimize premature reaction, the polylactic acid and polyepoxide modifier are first blended together at a relatively low temperature(s). Nevertheless, a relatively high shear rate may be employed during blending to induce chain scission of the polylactic acid backbone, thereby making more hydroxyl and/or carboxyl groups available for subsequent reaction with the polyepoxide modifier. Once blended, the temperature(s) employed during extrusion of the blended composition can be selected to both melt the composition and initiate a reaction of the polyepoxide modifier with hydroxyl and/or carboxyl groups of the polylactic acid. Through selective control over this method, the present inventors have discovered that the resulting fibers may exhibit good mechanical properties, both during and after melt spinning.
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