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83027 results about "Room temperature" patented technology

Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing. Human comfort can extend beyond this range depending on humidity, air circulation and other factors. In certain fields, like science and engineering, and within a particular context, room temperature can mean different agreed-on ranges. In contrast, ambient temperature is the actual temperature of the air (or other medium and surroundings) in any particular place, as measured by a thermometer. It may be very different from usual room temperature, for example an unheated room in winter.

Fluoropolymer dispersion containing no or little low molecular weight fluorinated surfactant

In an aspect of the invention, a fluoropolymer dispersion, preferably a PTFE dispersion, is provided that comprises fluoropolymer particles having an average particle size of 10 to 400 nm dispersed in water whereby the dispersion has an amount of solids between 35 and 70% by weight. The dispersion is free of fluorinated surfactant having a molecular weight of less than 1000 g / mol (hereinafter called low molecular weight fluorinated surfactant) or contains the low molecular weight fluorinated surfactant in an amount of not more than 0.05% by weight based on the total weight solids of the dispersion. The dispersion further comprises a non-ionic non-fluorinated surfactant or mixture of non-ionic non-fluorinated surfactants and one or more non-fluorinated anionic surfactants. Through the use of a non-fluorinated anionic surfactant, a dispersion is obtained that has a low viscosity at room temperature (20° C.). The dispersion is further free of aromatic group containing non-ionic surfactants and is accordingly environmentally more friendly and can yield coatings that are less susceptible of discoloration. The amount and nature of the non-ionic non-fluorinated surfactant or mixture of non-ionic non-fluorinated surfactants is selected such that the Viscosity Transition Temperature (VTT) (measured as set forth in the examples) of the fluoropolymer dispersion is at least 26, preferably at least 28° C. In a further aspect of the invention, a method is provided to obtain the aforementioned dispersion.

Method of forming sensor for detecting gases and biochemical materials, integrated circuit having the sensor, and method of manufacturing the integrated circuit

InactiveUS20080121946A1Characteristics degradation of an integrated circuit caused by heating the unit devices when forming the sensor can be preventedSemiconductor/solid-state device manufacturingNanosensorsMOSFETNano structuring
A method of forming a sensor for detecting gases and biochemical materials that can be fabricated at a temperature in a range from room temperature to 400° C., a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET)-based integrated circuit including the sensor, and a method of manufacturing the integrated circuit are provided. The integrated circuit includes a semiconductor substrate. The sensor for detecting gases and biochemical materials includes a pair of electrodes formed on a first region of the semiconductor substrate, and a metal oxide nano structure layer formed on surfaces of the pair electrodes. A heater is formed to perform thermal treatment to re-use the material detected in the metal oxide nano structure layer. Also, a signal processor is formed by a MOSFET to process a predetermined signal obtained from a quantity change of a current flowing through the pair of electrodes of the sensor. To form the sensor, the metal oxide nano structure layer is formed on surfaces of the pair of electrodes at a temperature in a range from room temperature to 400° C.

Coolerless photonic integrated circuits (PICs) for WDM transmission networks and PICs operable with a floating signal channel grid changing with temperature but with fixed channel spacing in the floating grid

ActiveUS20050249509A1Requirements for a hermetically sealed package are substantially relievedEasy to controlLaser optical resonator constructionSemiconductor laser arrangementsElectro-absorption modulatorHermetic packaging
A coolerless photonic integrated circuit (PIC), such as a semiconductor electro-absorption modulator/laser (EML) or a coolerless optical transmitter photonic integrated circuit (TxPIC), may be operated over a wide temperature range at temperatures higher then room temperature without the need for ambient cooling or hermetic packaging. Since there is large scale integration of N optical transmission signal WDM channels on a TxPIC chip, a new DWDM system approach with novel sensing schemes and adaptive algorithms provides intelligent control of the PIC to optimize its performance and to allow optical transmitter and receiver modules in DWDM systems to operate uncooled. Moreover, the wavelength grid of the on-chip channel laser sources may thermally float within a WDM wavelength band where the individual emission wavelengths of the laser sources are not fixed to wavelength peaks along a standardized wavelength grid but rather may move about with changes in ambient temperature. However, control is maintained such that the channel spectral spacing between channels across multiple signal channels, whether such spacing is periodic or aperiodic, between adjacent laser sources in the thermally floating wavelength grid are maintained in a fixed relationship. Means are then provided at an optical receiver to discover and lock onto floating wavelength grid of transmitted WDM signals and thereafter demultiplex the transmitted WDM signals for OE conversion.
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