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14116 results about "Electrolyte" patented technology

An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water. The dissolved electrolyte separates into cations and anions, which disperse uniformly through the solvent. Electrically, such a solution is neutral. If an electric potential is applied to such a solution, the cations of the solution are drawn to the electrode that has an abundance of electrons, while the anions are drawn to the electrode that has a deficit of electrons. The movement of anions and cations in opposite directions within the solution amounts to a current. This includes most soluble salts, acids, and bases. Some gases, such as hydrogen chloride, under conditions of high temperature or low pressure can also function as electrolytes. Electrolyte solutions can also result from the dissolution of some biological (e.g., DNA, polypeptides) and synthetic polymers (e.g., polystyrene sulfonate), termed "polyelectrolytes", which contain charged functional groups. A substance that dissociates into ions in solution acquires the capacity to conduct electricity. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate are examples of electrolytes.

Apparatus and method for determining the relative position and orientation of neurostimulation leads

Interelectrode impedance or electric field potential measurements are used to determine the relative orientation of one lead to other leads in the spinal column or other body/tissue location. Interelectrode impedance is determined by measuring impedance vectors. The value of the impedance vector is due primarily to the electrode-electrolyte interface, and the bulk impedance between the electrodes. The bulk impedance between the electrodes is, in turn, made up of (1) the impedance of the tissue adjacent to the electrodes, and (2) the impedance of the tissue between the electrodes. In one embodiment, the present invention makes both monopolar and bipolar impedance measurements, and then corrects the bipolar impedance measurements using the monopolar measurements to eliminate the effect of the impedance of the tissue adjacent the electrodes. The orientation and position of the leads may be inferred from the relative minima of the corrected bipolar impedance values. These corrected impedance values may also be mapped and stored to facilitate a comparison with subsequent corrected impedance measurement values. Such comparison allows a determination to be made as to whether the lead position and/or orientation has changed appreciably over time. In another embodiment, one or more electrodes are stimulated and the resulting electric field potential on the non-stimulated electrodes is measured. Such field potential measurements provide an indication of the relative orientation of the electrodes. Once known, the relative orientation may be used to track lead migration, to setup stimulation configurations and parameters for nominal stimulation and/or navigation. Also, such measurements allow automatic adjustment of stimulation energy to a previously-defined optimal potential field in the case of lead migration or postural changes.

Reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) state monitoring

Reversible electrochemical mirror (REM) devices typically comprise a conductive oxide mirror electrode that is substantially transparent to radiation of some wavelengths, a counter electrode that may also be substantially transparent, and an electrolyte that contains ions of an electrodepositable metal. A voltage applied between the two electrodes causes electrodeposition of a mirror deposit on the mirror electrode and dissolution of the mirror deposit on the counter electrode, and these processes are reversed when the polarity of the applied voltage is changed. Such REM devices provide precise control over the reflection and transmission of radiation and can be used for a variety of applications, including smart windows and automatically adjusting automotive mirrors. According to the present invention, measurements of the sheet resistance of the mirror electrode in a REM device are correlated with the thickness of electrodeposited mirror metal and can be used to monitor the reflectance of the device. Sheet resistance measurements can be performed while the mirror state of the device is being switched if adequate isolation between the measurement and switching circuits is provided. This can be accomplished by use of external resistors or more sophisticated circuitry, or by taking advantage of the relatively high sheet resistance of the mirror electrode itself. Monitoring the reflectance of REM devices according to this invention provides significant cost and performance advantages.

Flat capacitor for an implantable medical device

One embodiment includes a capacitor having a first anode stack having a first number of anode foils, a second anode stack having a second number of anode foils, where the first number of anode foils is different than the second number of anode foils. Another aspect provides a capacitor having a case having a curved interior surface, and first, second, and third capacitor modules that confront the curved interior surface of the case. One aspect provides a capacitor having one or more anodes and a cathode structure comprising a plurality of integrally connected cathode plates, the cathode structure having a serpentine shape, interweaving under and over each of the one or more anodes. One aspect provides a feedthrough assembly having an electrically conductive member dimensioned to extend at least partially through a feedthrough hole of a case of the capacitor, the conductive member having a passage therethrough. One aspect provides a capacitor having a first stack of capacitive elements a second stack of capacitive elements, wherein the first and second stacks are enclosed in separate compartments of a capacitor case that electrically isolate the electrolytes of each stack from one another. One aspect provides a capacitor case including a portion having opposing interior and exterior surfaces, with the portion having a hole; and a semi-permeable membrane adjacent the hole to regulate passage of fluids through the hole.
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