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7124results about "Solid electrolytes" patented technology

Ordered Nanoscale Domains by Infiltration of Block Copolymers

A method of preparing tunable inorganic patterned nanofeatures by infiltration of a block copolymer scaffold having a plurality of self-assembled periodic polymer microdomains. The method may be used sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), related to atomic layer deposition (ALD). The method includes selecting a metal precursor that is configured to selectively react with the copolymer unit defining the microdomain but is substantially non-reactive with another polymer unit of the copolymer. A tunable inorganic features is selectively formed on the microdomain to form a hybrid organic / inorganic composite material of the metal precursor and a co-reactant. The organic component may be optionally removed to obtain an inorganic feature s with patterned nanostructures defined by the configuration of the microdomain.

Fuel cell platelet separators having coordinate features

PCT No. PCT/US95/13325 Sec. 371 Date Sep. 28, 1997 Sec. 102(e) Date Sep. 28, 1997 PCT Filed Oct. 10, 1995 PCT Pub. No. WO96/12316 PCT Pub. Date Apr. 25, 1996Fuel cell stacks comprising stacked separator/membrane electrode assembly fuel cells in which the separators comprise a series of thin sheet platelets, having individually configured serpentine micro-channel reactant gas humidification active areas and cooling fields therein. The individual platelets are stacked with coordinate features aligned in contact with adjacent platelets and bonded to form a monolithic separator. Post-bonding processing includes passivation, such as nitriding. Preferred platelet material is 4-25 mil Ti, in which the features, serpentine channels, tabs, lands, vias, manifolds and holes, are formed by chemical and laser etching, cutting, pressing or embossing, with combinations of depth and through etching preferred. The platelet manufacturing process is continuous and fast. By employing CAD based platelet design and photolithography, rapid change in feature design can accommodate a wide range of thermal management and humidification techniques. One hundred H2-O2/PEM fuel cell stacks of this IFMT platelet design will exhibit outputs on the order of 0.75 kW/kg, some 3-6 times greater than the current graphite plate PEM stacks.

Advanced Metal-Air Battery Having a Ceramic Membrane Electrolyte Background of the Invention

A metal-air battery is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a cathode to reduce oxygen molecules and an alkali-metal-containing anode to oxidize the alkali metal (e.g., Li, Na, and K) contained therein to produce alkali-metal ions. An aqueous catholyte is placed in ionic communication with the cathode to store reaction products generated by reacting the alkali-metal ions with the oxygen containing anions. These reaction products are stored as solutes dissolved in the aqueous catholyte. An ion-selective membrane is interposed between the alkali-metal containing anode and the aqueous catholyte. The ion-selective membrane is designed to be conductive to the alkali-metal ions while being impermeable to the aqueous catholyte.

Nano-structured ion-conducting inorganic membranes for fuel cell applications

An inorganic proton-conducting membrane and a fuel cell comprising this membrane. The fuel cell comprises a fuel anode, an oxidant cathode, and an inorganic proton-conducting membrane disposed between the anode and the cathode. The membrane is composed of a nano-structured network of proton-exchange inorganic particles. The particles form a sufficiently high density of proton-conducting nanometer-scaled channels with at least one dimension smaller than 100 nanometers so that ionic conductivity of the membrane is no less than 10−6 S / cm (mostly greater than 10−4 S / cm ) at 25° C. or no less than 10−4 S / cm (mostly greater than 10−2 S / cm) at 200° C. This inorganic membrane allows a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to operate at a higher temperature without the need (or with a reduced need) to maintain the membrane in a highly hydrated state. A higher operating temperature also implies a fast electro-catalytic reaction of a fuel (e.g., mixture of methanol and water) at the anode permitting a lesser amount of fuel to cross-over the membrane and, hence, a higher fuel utilization efficiency.

Solid polymer fuel cell with improved voltage reversal tolerance

In a solid polymer fuel cell series, various circumstances can result in the fuel cell being driven into voltage reversal. For instance, cell voltage reversal can occur if that cell receives an inadequate supply of fuel (for example, fuel starvation). In order to pass current during fuel starvation, reactions other than fuel oxidation may take place at the fuel cell anode, including water electrolysis and oxidation of anode components. The latter may result in significant degradation of the anode. Such fuel cells can be made more tolerant to cell reversal by promoting water electrolysis over anode component oxidation at the anode. This can be accomplished by incorporating a catalyst composition at the anode to promote the water electrolysis reaction, in addition to the typical anode electrocatalyst for promoting fuel oxidation.

Novel composite cathodes, electrochemical cells comprising novel composite cathodes, and processes for fabricating same

The present invention pertains to composite cathodes suitable for use in an electrochemical cell, said cathodes comprising: (a) an electroactive sulfur-containing cathode material, wherein said electroactive sulfur-containing cathode material, in its oxidized state, comprises a polysulfide moiety of the formula —Sm—, wherein m is an integer equal to or greater than 3; and, (b) an electroactive transition metal chalcogenide composition, which encapsulates said electroactive sulfur-containing cathode material, and which retards the transport of anionic reduction products of said electroactive sulfur-containing cathode material, said electroactive transition metal chalcogenide composition comprising an electroactive transition metal chalcogenide having the formula MjYk(OR)l wherein: M is a transition metal; Y is the same or different at each occurrence and is oxygen, sulfur, or selenium; R is an organic group and is the same or different at each occurrence; j is an integer ranging from 1 to 12; k is a number ranging from 0 to 72; and l is a number ranging from 0 to 72; with the proviso that k and l cannot both be 0. The present invention also pertains to methods of making such composite cathodes, cells comprising such composite cathodes, and methods of making such cells.

Anode compositions for lithium secondary batteries

A lithium secondary battery comprising a cathode, an anode, and a separator-electrolyte assembly or electrolyte layer disposed between the cathode and the anode, wherein the anode comprises: (a) an integrated nano-structure of electrically conductive nanometer-scaled filaments that are interconnected to form a porous network of electron-conducting paths comprising interconnected pores, wherein the filaments have a transverse dimension less than 500 nm; and (b) a foil of lithium or lithium alloy as an anode active material. The battery exhibits an exceptionally high specific capacity, an excellent reversible capacity, and a long cycle life.
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