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41490 results about "Laser" patented technology

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow.

High speed parallel molecular nucleic acid sequencing

A method and device is disclosed for high speed, automated sequencing of nucleic acid molecules. A nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is exposed to a polymerase in the presence of nucleotides which are to be incorporated into a complementary nucleic acid strand. The polymerase carries a donor fluorophore, and each type of nucleotide (e.g. A, T/U, C and G) carries a distinguishable acceptor fluorophore characteristic of the particular type of nucleotide. As the polymerase incorporates individual nucleic acid molecules into a complementary strand, a laser continuously irradiates the donor fluorophore, at a wavelength that causes it to emit an emission signal (but the laser wavelength does not stimulate the acceptor fluorophore). In particular embodiments, no laser is needed if the donor fluorophore is a luminescent molecule or is stimulated by one. The emission signal from the polymerase is capable of stimulating any of the donor fluorophores (but not acceptor fluorophores), so that as a nucleotide is added by the polymerase, the acceptor fluorophore emits a signal associated with the type of nucleotide added to the complementary strand. The series of emission signals from the acceptor fluorophores is detected, and correlated with a sequence of nucleotides that correspond to the sequence of emission signals.

Copper conductor annealing process employing high speed optical annealing with a low temperature-deposited optical absorber layer

A method of forming a conductor in a thin film structure on a semiconductor substrate includes forming high aspect ratio openings in a base layer having vertical side walls, depositing a dielectric barrier layer comprising a dielectric compound of a barrier metal on the surfaces of the high aspect ratio openings including the vertical side walls, depositing a metal barrier layer comprising the barrier metal on the first barrier layer, depositing a main conductor species seed layer on the metal barrier layer and depositing a main conductor layer. The method further includes annealing the main conductor layer by (a) directing light from an array of continuous wave lasers into a line of light extending at least partially across the thin film structure, and (b) translating the line of light relative to the thin film structure in a direction transverse to the line of light. The method of Claim 1 further comprising, prior to the annealing step, depositing an amorphous carbon optical absorber layer on the main conductor layer. The step of depositing an amorphous carbon optical absorber layer includes introducing a carbon-containing process gas into a reactor chamber containing the substrate in a process zone of the reactor, applying RF source power to an external reentrant conduit of the reactor to generate a reentrant toroidal RF plasma current passing through the process zone and applying a bias voltage to the substrate.
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