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72852 results about "Electrical resistance and conductance" patented technology

The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the flow of electric current. The inverse quantity is electrical conductance, and is the ease with which an electric current passes. Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the notion of mechanical friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm (Ω), while electrical conductance is measured in siemens (S).

Electrosurgical instrument

A working end of a surgical instrument that carries first and second jaws for delivering energy to tissue. In a preferred embodiment, at least one jaw of the working end defines a tissue-engagement plane that contacts the targeted tissue. The cross-section of the engagement plane reveals that it defines (i) a first surface conductive portion or a variably resistive matrix of a temperature-sensitive resistive material or a pressure-sensitive resistive material, and (ii) a second surface portion coupled to a fixed resistive material that coupled in series or parallel to a voltage source together with the first portion. In use, the engagement plane will apply active Rf energy to ohmically heat the captured tissue until the point in time that a controller senses an electrical parameter of the tissue such as impedance. Thereafter, the controller switches energy delivery to the second surface portion that is resistively heated to thereby apply energy to tissue by conductive heat transfer.
Owner:ETHICON ENDO SURGERY INC

Electrosurgical jaw structure for controlled energy delivery

A working end of a surgical instrument that carries first and second jaws for delivering energy to tissue. In a preferred embodiment, at least one jaw of the working end defines a tissue-engagement plane that contacts the targeted tissue. The cross-section of the engagement plane reveals that it defines a surface conductive portion that overlies a variably resistive matrix of a temperature-sensitive resistive material or a pressure-sensitive resistive material. An interior of the jaw carries a conductive material or electrode that is coupled to an Rf source and controller. In an exemplary embodiment, the variably resistive matrix can comprise a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) material, such as a ceramic, that is engineered to exhibit a dramatically increasing resistance (i.e., several orders of magnitude) above a specific temperature of the material. In use, the engagement plane will apply active Rf energy to captured tissue until the point in time that the variably resistive matrix is heated to its selected switching range. Thereafter, current flow from the conductive electrode through the engagement surface will be terminated due to the exponential increase in the resistance of variably resistive matrix to provide instant and automatic reduction of Rf energy application. Further, the variably resistive matrix can effectively function as a resistive electrode to thereafter conduct thermal energy to the engaged tissue volume. Thus, the jaw structure can automatically modulate the application of energy to tissue between active Rf heating and passive conductive heating of captured tissue to maintain a target temperature level.
Owner:ETHICON ENDO SURGERY INC

Jaw structure for electrosurgical instrument and method of use

An electrosurgical medical device and technique for creating thermal welds in engaged tissue that provides very high compressive forces. In one exemplary embodiment, at least one jaw of the instrument defines a tissue engagement plane carrying first and second surface portions that comprise (i) an electrically conductive material and (ii) a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) material having a selected increased resistance that differs at each selected increased temperature over a targeted treatment range. One type of PTC material is a doped ceramic that can be engineered to exhibit a selected positively sloped temperature-resistance curve over about 37° C. to 100° C. The 70° C. to 100° C. range can bracket a targeted “thermal treatment range” at which tissue welded can be accomplished. The engineered resistance of the PTC matrix at the upper end of the temperature range will terminate current flow through the matrix. In one mode of operation, the engagement plane cause ohmic heating within tissue from Rf energy delivery tissue PTC matrix is heated to exceed the treatment range. Thereafter, energy density in the engaged tissue will be modulated as the conductivity of the second portion hovers within the targeted treatment range to thereby provide optical tissue heating for purposes of tissue welding.
Owner:ETHICON ENDO SURGERY INC

Method of forming metal layer using atomic layer deposition and semiconductor device having the metal layer as barrier metal layer or upper or lower electrode of capacitor

A method of forming a metal layer having excellent thermal and oxidation resistant characteristics using atomic layer deposition is provided. The metal layer includes a reactive metal (A), an element (B) for the amorphous combination between the reactive metal (A) and nitrogen (N), and nitrogen (N). The reactive metal (A) may be titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), molybdenum (Mo) or niobium (Nb). The amorphous combination element (B) may be aluminum (Al), silicon (Si) or boron (B). The metal layer is formed by alternately injecting pulsed source gases for the elements (A, B and N) into a chamber according to atomic layer deposition to thereby alternately stack atomic layers. Accordingly, the composition ratio of a nitrogen compound (A-B-N) of the metal layer can be desirably adjusted just by appropriately determining the number of injection pulses of each source gas. According to the composition ratio, a desirable electrical conductivity and resistance of the metal layer can be accurately obtained. The atomic layers are individually deposited, thereby realizing excellent step coverage even in a complex and compact region. A metal layer formed by atomic layer deposition can be employed as a barrier metal layer, a lower electrode or an upper electrode in a semiconductor device.
Owner:SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO LTD

Tobacco-Containing Smoking Article

A smoking article may include a cigarette incorporated within an electrically powered aerosol generating device that acts as a holder for that cigarette. The smoking article possesses at least one form of tobacco. The smoking article also possesses a mouth-end piece that is used by the smoker to inhale components of tobacco that are generated by the action of heat upon components of the cigarette. A representative smoking article possesses an outer housing incorporating a source of electrical power (e.g., a battery), a sensing mechanism for powering the device at least during periods of draw, and a heating device (e.g., at least one electrical resistance heating element) for forming a thermally generated aerosol that incorporates components of tobacco. During use, the cigarette is positioned within the device, and after use, the used cigarette is removed from the device and replaced with another cigarette.
Owner:RAI STRATEGIC HLDG INC

Electrosurgical instrument and method of use

InactiveUS7112201B2Reduce conductancePrevent any substantial dehydrationSurgical instruments for heatingCoatingsMicron scaleElastomer
An electrosurgical medical device and method for creating thermal welds in engaged tissue. In one embodiment, at least one jaw of the instrument defines a tissue engagement plane carrying a conductive-resistive matrix of a conductively-doped non-conductive elastomer. The engagement surface portions thus can be described as a positive temperature coefficient material that has a unique selected decreased electrical conductance at each selected increased temperature thereof over a targeted treatment range. The conductive-resistive matrix can be engineered to bracket a targeted thermal treatment range, for example about 60° C. to 80° C., at which tissue welding can be accomplished. In one mode of operation, the engagement plane will automatically modulate and spatially localize ohmic heating within the engaged tissue from Rf energy application—across micron-scale portions of the engagement surface. In another mode of operation, a conductive-resistive matrix can induce a “wave” of Rf energy density to sweep across the tissue to thereby weld tissue.
Owner:ETHICON ENDO SURGERY INC

Adjustable compression staple and method for stapling with adjustable compression

A compression-self-adjusting staple includes a substantially U-shaped staple body and a compression device. The staple body has a bridge and two legs extending from the bridge at an angle thereto. Each of the legs has a base end integral with the bridge and a deformable distal end defining a stapling point shaped to pierce material to be stapled. The compression device is at least partly disposed between the legs and has a bias portion with a compression surface movably disposed between the legs and a compression resistor connected to the bridge and to the compression surface and formed to resist movement of the compression surface towards the bridge with a force.
Owner:CILAG GMBH INT

Power semiconductor devices and methods of manufacture

Various embodiments for improved power devices as well as their methods of manufacture, packaging and circuitry incorporating the same for use in a wide variety of power electronic applications are disclosed. One aspect of the invention combines a number of charge balancing techniques and other techniques for reducing parasitic capacitance to arrive at different embodiments for power devices with improved voltage performance, higher switching speed, and lower on-resistance. Another aspect of the invention provides improved termination structures for low, medium and high voltage devices. Improved methods of fabrication for power devices are provided according to other aspects of the invention. Improvements to specific processing steps, such as formation of trenches, formation of dielectric layers inside trenches, formation of mesa structures and processes for reducing substrate thickness, among others, are presented. According to another aspect of the invention, charge balanced power devices incorporate temperature and current sensing elements such as diodes on the same die. Other aspects of the invention improve equivalent series resistance (ESR) for power devices, incorporate additional circuitry on the same chip as the power device and provide improvements to the packaging of charge balanced power devices.
Owner:SEMICON COMPONENTS IND LLC

Method and apparatus for providing input to a processor, and a sensor pad

An apparatus for providing input to a processor includes a sensor pad having a surface and a sensor array for sensing pressure at the surface and producing signals corresponding to the pressure at the surface. The sensor array having columns and rows of electrodes that are covered with resistive material which fills in the spaces between the electrodes and acts as a linear resistor between the electrodes and measures pressure on the pad surface between the electrodes. The apparatus includes an interface in contact with the sensor pad and in communication with the sensor array which couples to the processor to communicate the signals to the processor. A method for providing input to a processor includes the steps of sensing pressure with a sensor pad having a surface and a sensor array for sensing the pressure at the surface. There is the step of producing signals corresponding to the pressure at the surface with the sensor array. The sensor array having columns and rows of electrodes that are covered with resistive material which fills in the spaces between the electrodes and acts as a linear resistor between the electrodes and measures pressure on the pad surface between the electrodes. There is the step of communicating the signals to the processor with an interface in contact with the sensor pad and in communication with the sensor array which couples to the processor.
Owner:NEW YORK UNIV

Programmable metallization cell structure and method of making same

A programmable metallization cell ("PMC") comprises a fast ion conductor such as a chalcogenide-metal ion and a plurality of electrodes (e.g., an anode and a cathode) disposed at the surface of the fast ion conductor and spaced a set distance apart from each other. Preferably, the fast ion conductor comprises a chalcogenide with Group IB or Group IIB metals, the anode comprises silver, and the cathode comprises aluminum or other conductor. When a voltage is applied to the anode and the cathode, a non-volatile metal dendrite grows from the cathode along the surface of the fast ion conductor towards the anode. The growth rate of the dendrite is a function of the applied voltage and time. The growth of the dendrite may be stopped by removing the voltage and the dendrite may be retracted by reversing the voltage polarity at the anode and cathode. Changes in the length of the dendrite affect the resistance and capacitance of the PMC. The PMC may be incorporated into a variety of technologies such as memory devices, programmable resistor / capacitor devices, optical devices, sensors, and the like. Electrodes additional to the cathode and anode can be provided to serve as outputs or additional outputs of the devices in sensing electrical characteristics which are dependent upon the extent of the dendrite.
Owner:AXON TECH +1

Semiconductor device and method for manufacturing the same

A thin film transistor structure in which a source electrode and a drain electrode formed from a metal material are in direct contact with an oxide semiconductor film may lead to high contact resistance. One cause of high contact resistance is that a Schottky junction is formed at a contact plane between the source and drain electrodes and the oxide semiconductor film. An oxygen-deficient oxide semiconductor layer which includes crystal grains with a size of 1 nm to 10 nm and has a higher carrier concentration than the oxide semiconductor film serving as a channel formation region is provided between the oxide semiconductor film and the source and drain electrodes.
Owner:SEMICON ENERGY LAB CO LTD

Programmable sub-surface aggregating metallization structure and method of making same

A programmable sub-surface aggregating metallization sructure ("PSAM") includes an ion conductor such as a chalcogenide-glass which includes metal ions and at least two electrodes disposed at opposing surfaces of the ion conductor. Preferably, the ion conductor includes a chalcogenide material with Group IB or Group IIB metals. One of the two electrodes is preferably configured as a cathode and the other as an anode. When a voltage is applied between the anode and cathode, a metal dendrite grows from the cathode through the ion conductor towards the anode. The growth rate of the dendrite may be stopped by removing the voltage or the dendrite may be retracted back towards the cathode by reversing the voltage polarity at the anode and cathode. When a voltage is applied for a sufficient length of time, a continuous metal dendrite grows through the ion conductor and connects the electrodes, thereby shorting the device. The continuous metal dendrite then can be broken by applying another voltage. The break in the metal dendrite can be reclosed by applying yet another voltage. Changes in the length of the dendrite or the presence of a break in the dendrite affect the resistance, capacitance, and impedance of the PSAM.
Owner:THE ARIZONA BOARD OF REGENTS ON BEHALF OF THE UNIV OF ARIZONA +1
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