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5135results about "Scattering properties measurements" patented technology

Methods and Scatterometers, Lithographic Systems, and Lithographic Processing Cells

In a method of determining the focus of a lithographic apparatus used in a lithographic process on a substrate, the lithographic process is used to form a structure on the substrate, the structure having at least one feature which has an asymmetry in the printed profile which varies as a function of the focus of the lithographic apparatus on the substrate. A first image of the periodic structure is formed and detected while illuminating the structure with a first beam of radiation. The first image is formed using a first part of non-zero order diffracted radiation. A second image of the periodic structure is foamed and detected while illuminating the structure with a second beam of radiation. The second image is formed using a second part of the non-zero order diffracted radiation which is symmetrically opposite to the first part in a diffraction spectrum. The ratio of the intensities of the measured first and second portions of the spectra is determined and used to determine the asymmetry in the profile of the periodic structure and/or to provide an indication of the focus on the substrate. In the same instrument, an intensity variation across the detected portion is determined as a measure of process-induced variation across the structure. A region of the structure with unwanted process variation can be identified and excluded from a measurement of the structure.

Optical-based sensing devices

An optical-based sensor for detecting the presence or amount of an analyte using both indicator and reference channels. The sensor has a sensor body with a source of radiation embedded therein. Radiation emitted by the source interacts with indicator membrane indicator molecules proximate the surface of the body. At least one optical characteristic of these indicator molecules varies with analyte concentration. For example, the level of fluorescence of fluorescent indicator molecules or the amount of light absorbed by light-absorbing indicator molecules can vary as a function of analyte concentration. In addition, radiation emitted by the source also interacts with reference membrane indicator molecules proximate the surface of the body. Radiation (e.g., light) emitted or reflected by these indicator molecules enters and is internally reflected in the sensor body. Photosensitive elements within the sensor body generate both indicator channel and reference channel signals to provide an accurate indication of the concentration of the analyte. Preferred embodiments are totally self-contained and are sized and shaped for use in vivo in a human being. Such embodiments preferably include a power source, e.g. an inductor, which powers the source of radiation using external means, as well as a transmitter, e.g. an inductor, to transmit to external pickup means the signal representing the level of analyte.
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