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8103results about "Biological material analysis" patented technology

Method and system for rapid biomolecular recognition of amino acids and protein sequencing

Methods, compositions, kits, and apparatus are provided wherein the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase system is used to analyze amino acids. The method allows very small devices for quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the amino acids in samples or in sequential or complete proteolytic digestions. The methods can be readily applied to the detection and/or quantitation of one or more primary amino acids by using cognate aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and cognate tRNA. The basis of the method is that each of the 20 synthetases and/or a tRNA specific for a different amino acid is separated spatially or differentially labeled. The reactions catalyzed by all 20 synthetases may be monitored simultaneously, or nearly simultaneously, or in parallel. Each separately positioned synthetase or tRNA will signal its cognate amino acid. The synthetase reactions can be monitored using continuous spectroscopic assays. Alternatively, since elongation factor Tu:GTP (EF-Tu:GTP) specifically binds all AA-tRNAs, the aminoacylation reactions catalyzed by the synthetases can be monitored using ligand assays. Microarrays and microsensors for amino acid analysis are provided. Additionally, amino acid analysis devices are integrated with protease digestions to produce miniaturized enzymatic sequenators capable of generating either N- or C-terminal sequence and composition data for a protein or peptide. The possibility of parallel processing of many samples in an automated manner is discussed.

Polymers for analyte detection

The present invention generally relates to organic polymers able to participate in an analyte-recognition process, where an analyte facilitates an energy transfer between an energy donor and an energy acceptor. Certain embodiments of the invention make use of fluorescent conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene ethynylene)s and other polymers comprising pi-conjugated backbones. For example, one aspect of the invention provides a fluorescent conjugated polymer and an indicator that can interact with each other in the presence of an analyte to produce an emissive signal. In some cases, the interaction may include energy exchange mechanisms, such as Dexter energy transfer or the strong coupling effect. The interaction of the conjugated polymer and the indicator, in some instances, may be facilitated through specific interactions, such as a protein/carbohydrate interaction, a ligand/receptor interaction, etc. Another aspect of the invention provides for the detection of biological entities, for example, pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli, or viruses such as influenza virus. In some cases, biological recognition elements may be used to determine the biological entity, for instance, carbohydrates that can be used to specifically interact with at least part of the biological entity, such as a protein in the cell membrane of a bacterium. Still other aspects of the invention involve articles, devices, and kits using any of the above-described systems.

Detection of ion channel or receptor activity

The invention provides nanosensors and nanosensor components for the detection of ion channel activity, receptor activity, or protein protein interactions. Certain of the nanosensor components comprise a nanoparticle and recognition domain. Following contact with cells and, optionally, internalization of the nanosensor component by a cell, the recognition domain binds to a target domain, e.g., a heterologous target domain, of a polypeptide of interest such as an ion channel subunit, G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), or G protein subunit. Ion channel activity, GPCR activity, or altered protein interaction results in a detectable signal. The nanoparticles may be functionalized so that they respond to the presence of an ion by altering their proximity. Certain of the nanosensors utilize the phenomenon of plasmon resonance to produce a signal while others utilize magnetic properties, RET, and/or ion-sensitive moieties. Also provided are polypeptides, e.g., ion channel subunits, comprising a heterologous target domain, and cell lines that express the polypeptides. Further provided are a variety of methods for detecting ion channel activity, receptor activity, or protein interaction and for identifying compounds that modulate one or more of these. In certain embodiments the invention allows the user to detect the activity of specific ion channels even in the presence of other channels that permit passage of the same ion(s) or result in activation of the same downstream targets, thereby achieving improved specificity in high throughput screens while at the same time providing a high signal to noise ratio.
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