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3322 results about "Mammal" patented technology

Mammals (from Latin mamma "breast") are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia (/məˈmeɪliə/), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females (and sometimes males) produce milk for feeding (nursing) their young, a neocortex (a region of the brain), fur or hair, and three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals. The largest orders are the rodents, bats and Soricomorpha (shrews and others). The next three are the Primates (apes, monkeys, and others), the Cetartiodactyla (cetaceans and even-toed ungulates), and the Carnivora (cats, dogs, seals, and others).

Defined media for stem cell culture

Stem cells, including mammalian, and particularly primate primordial stem cells (pPSCs) such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), hold great promise for restoring cell, tissue, and organ function. However, cultivation of stem cells, particularly undifferentiated hESCs, in serum-free, feeder-free, and conditioned-medium-free conditions remains crucial for large-scale, uniform production of pluripotent cells for cell-based therapies, as well as for controlling conditions for efficiently directing their lineage-specific differentiation. This instant invention is based on the discovery of the formulation of minimal essential components necessary for maintaining the long-term growth of pPSCs, particularly undifferentiated hESCs. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin, ascorbic acid, and laminin were identified to be both sufficient and necessary for maintaining hESCs in a healthy self-renewing undifferentiated state capable of both prolonged propagation and then directed differentiation. Having discerned these minimal molecular requirements, conditions that would permit the substitution of poorly-characterized and unspecified biological additives and substrates were derived and optimized with entirely defined constituents, providing a “biologics”-free (i.e., animal-, feeder-, serum-, and conditioned-medium-free) system for the efficient long-term cultivation of pPSCs, particularly pluripotent hESCs. Such culture systems allow the derivation and large-scale production of stem cells such as pPSCs, particularly pluripotent hESCs, in optimal yet well-defined biologics-free culture conditions from which they can be efficiently directed towards a lineage-specific differentiated fate in vitro, and thus are important, for instance, in connection with clinical applications based on stem cell therapy and in drug discovery processes.

Device features and design elements for long-term adhesion

An electronic device for long-term adhesion to a mammal includes a housing with an electronic component. There is a first wing and a second wing, each being integrally formed with the housing. An electrode is positioned on a bottom surface of each of the wings, the electrodes electrically connected to the electronic component. An adhesive layer is provided for adhesion to a surface of the mammal. The adhesive layer is coated on a portion of the bottom surfaces of the wings. The adhesive layer is not coated on the electrode or on a bottom surface of the housing. A method of applying an electronic device to a mammal includes removing a first adhesive cover from a first wing of the electronic device to expose an electrode and an adhesive coated on a bottom surface of the first wing. There is a step of placing the exposed electrode into contact with the mammal by adhering the adhesive coated bottom of the first wing to the mammal. There is a step of removing a second adhesive cover from the second wing of the electronic device to expose an adhesive coated on a bottom surface of the second wing and another exposed electrode. There is a step of placing the another exposed electrode into contact with the mammal by adhering the adhesive coated bottom of the second wing to the mammal. After performing the removing and the placing steps, the housing is unattached to the mammal, but is held in position on the mammal using the adhesive coated bottoms of the first and the second wings.
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