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1417 results about "Spectroscopy" patented technology

Spectroscopy /spɛkˈtrɒskəpi/ is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation (via electron spectroscopy, atomic spectroscopy, etc). Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, by a prism. Later the concept was expanded greatly to include any interaction with radiative energy as a function of its wavelength or frequency, predominantly in the electromagnetic spectrum, though matter waves and acoustic waves can also be considered forms of radiative energy; recently, with tremendous difficulty, even gravitational waves have been associated with a spectral signature in the context of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and laser interferometry.Spectroscopic data are often represented by an emission spectrum, a plot of the response of interest, as a function of wavelength or frequency.

Mass spectrometer system

During the structural analysis of a protein or peptide by tandem mass spectroscopy, a peptide ion derived from a protein that has already been measured and that is expressed in great quantities is avoided as a tandem mass spectroscopy target. A peptide derived from a minute amount of protein, which has heretofore been difficult to analyze, can be automatically determined as a tandem mass spectroscopy target within the real time of measurement. Data concerning a protein that has already been measured and a peptide derived from the protein is automatically stored in an internal database. The stored data is collated with measured data with high accuracy to determine an isotope peak. In this way, the process of selecting a peptide peak that has not been measured as the target for the next tandem analysis can be performed within the real time of measurement and a redundant measurement of peptides derived from the same protein can be avoided. The information contained in the MSn spectrum is effectively utilized in each step of the MSn involving a multi-stage dissociation and mass spectroscopy (MSn), so that the flows for the determination of the next analysis content and the selection of the parent ion for the MSn+1 analysis, for example, can be optimized within the real time of measurement and with high efficiency and accuracy. Thus, a target of concern to the user can be subjected to tandem mass spectroscopy without wasteful measurement.

ILS sensors for drug detection within vehicles

InactiveUS6067167AExtend drug detectionColor/spectral properties measurementsOn boardSpectroscopy
On-board ILS sensors for detecting illegal drugs and based on intracavity laser spectroscopy (ILS) are provided for detecting the presence of drugs and their metabolized by-product vapors in an enclosed space, such as a vehicle. The sensor comprises: (a) a laser comprising a gain medium having two opposed facets within a laser resonator and functioning as an intracavity spectroscopic device having a first end and a second end, the first end operatively associated with a partially reflecting (i.e., partially transmitting) surface; (b) a reflective or dispersive optical element (e.g., a mirror or a diffraction grating) operatively associated with the second end to define a broadband wavelength laser resonator between the optical element and the first end and to thereby define an external cavity region between at least one facet of the gain medium and either the first end or the second end or both ends; (c) the external cavity region being exposed to air in the enclosed space to enable any drugs or their metabolized by-product molecules to enter thereinto; (d) a detector spaced from the first end; (e) appropriate electronics for measuring and analyzing the detector signal; (f) a housing for containing at least the laser, the partially reflecting surface, and the optical element, the housing being configured to prevent escape of stray radiation into the enclosed space and to permit air from the enclosed space to continuously circulate through the external cavity region for analysis; and (g) means for driving the laser (e.g., electrical or optical). A method is provided for measuring concentration of drug vapors and their metabolized by-product vapors in the vehicle or other enclosed space employing the on-board sensor. The method comprises: (1) sensing any drugs and their metabolized by-product vapors in the enclosed space by the on-board sensor; and (2) providing a signal indicative of presence of any drugs or metabolized vapors.

Intra-serum and intra-gel for modeling human skin tissue

The invention provides a class of samples that model the human body. This family of samples is based upon emulsions of oil in water with lecithin acting as the emulsifier. These solutions that have varying particle sizes may be spiked with basis set components (albumin, urea and glucose) to simulate skin tissues further. The family of samples is such that other organic compounds such as collagen, elastin, globulin and bilirubin may be added, as can salts such as Na+, K+ and Cl-. Layers of varying thickness with known index of refraction and particle size distributions may be generated using simple crosslinking reagents, such as collagen (gelatin). The resulting samples are flexible in each analyte's concentration and match the skin layers of the body in terms of the samples reduced scattering and absorption coefficients, mums and muma. This family of samples is provided for use in the medical field where lasers and spectroscopy based analyzers are used in treatment of the body. In particular, knowledge may be gained on net analyte signal, photon depth of penetration, photon radial diffusion, photon interaction between tissue layers, photon density (all as a function of frequency) and on instrument parameter specifications such as resolution and required dynamic range (A/D bits required). In particular, applications to delineate such parameters have been developed for the application of noninvasive glucose determination in the near-IR region from 700 to 2500 nm with an emphasis on the region 1000 to 2500 nm (10,000 to 4,000 cm-1).
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