Devices and methods for treating tissue with radiation, including light and other optical radiation, in a manner that is eye-safe are described. In one embodiment, a photocosmetic treatment device has a cavity into which tissue to be treated is drawn. The device determines whether the tissue is safe to treat and whether the tissue may be tissue associated with the eyes, such as an eyelid. In another embodiment, an eye-safe pulse of radiation is provided at a time interval prior to treatment of the tissue. The pulse is at a wavelength of radiation that the human eye perceives as particularly intense and uncomfortable, even though the pulse is not dangerous or destructive. If the device is oriented to treat eye tissue, directly or through the eyelid, the pulse will cause an aversive reaction in the subject being treated that inhibits the treatment.