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6641 results about "Signal-to-noise ratio (imaging)" patented technology

Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is used in imaging to characterize image quality. The sensitivity of a (digital or film) imaging system is typically described in the terms of the signal level that yields a threshold level of SNR.

Method and apparatus for integrating manual input

Apparatus and methods are disclosed for simultaneously tracking multiple finger and palm contacts as hands approach, touch, and slide across a proximity-sensing. compliant, and flexible multi-touch surface. The surface consists of compressible cushion, dielectric, electrode, and circuitry layers. A simple proximity transduction circuit is placed under each electrode to maximize signal-to-noise ratio and to reduce wiring complexity. Such distributed transduction circuitry is economical for large surfaces when implemented with thin-film transistor techniques. Scanning and signal offset removal on an electrode array produces low-noise proximity images. Segmentation processing of each proximity image constructs a group of electrodes corresponding to each distinguishable contact and extracts shape, position and surface proximity features for each group. Groups in successive images which correspond to the same hand contact are linked by a persistent path tracker which also detects individual contact touchdown and liftoff. Combinatorial optimization modules associate each contact's path with a particular fingertip, thumb, or palm of either hand on the basis of biomechanical constraints and contact features. Classification of intuitive hand configurations and motions enables unprecedented integration of typing, resting, pointing, scrolling, 3D manipulation, and handwriting into a versatile, ergonomic computer input device.

Method and device for efficient frame erasure concealment in linear predictive based speech codecs

The present invention relates to a method and device for improving concealment of frame erasure caused by frames of an encoded sound signal erased during transmission from an encoder (106) to a decoder (110), and for accelerating recovery of the decoder after non erased frames of the encoded sound signal have been received. For that purpose, concealment/recovery parameters are determined in the encoder or decoder. When determined in the encoder (106), the concealment/recovery parameters are transmitted to the decoder (110). In the decoder, erasure frame concealment and decoder recovery is conducted in response to the concealment/recovery parameters. The concealment/recovery parameters may be selected from the group consisting of: a signal classification parameter, an energy information parameter and a phase information parameter. The determination of the concealment/recovery parameters comprises classifying the successive frames of the encoded sound signal as unvoiced, unvoiced transition, voiced transition, voiced, or onset, and this classification is determined on the basis of at least a part of the following parameters: a normalized correlation parameter, a spectral tilt parameter, a signal-to-noise ratio parameter, a pitch stability parameter, a relative frame energy parameter, and a zero crossing parameter.

Method and system for assuring near uniform capacity and quality of channels in cells of wireless communications systems having cellular architectures

A method and system for use with wireless communication systems having a cellular architecture with at least a first and a second cell. The method and system provided ensure near uniform capacity and quality of channels within the second cell via the following steps. The noise signal power in unused data channels within the second cell is monitored. When a request for channel access is received, a determination is made whether the request for channel access is either a request for handoff from the first cell into the second cell, or not. In the event that the request is not a request for handoff, a determination is made whether idle channels exist to satisfy the request for channel access. In the event of a determination either that the request for channel access is a request for handoff, or both that the request is not a request for handoff and that idle channels exist to satisfy the request, a measured received signal power of a mobile unit subscriber unit making the request is determined. One of the unused channels in the second cell is then preferentially assigned to the mobile subscriber unit where such preference in assigning is to assign a channel, provided that a signal to noise ratio calculated upon the monitored received signal power and the monitored noise signal power of the preferentially assigned noisy channel meets or exceeds a required signal to noise ratio.

Method and system for solving cellular communications frequency planning problem

The foregoing objects are achieved as is now described. Provided are a method and system for utilization with wireless communications systems having a cellular architecture covering a geographic area. The method and system accomplish their objects via the following. The geographic area is defined. One or more pairs of the sectors within the defined geographic area wherein a weak connection zone exists are determined. The geographic area is decomposed into two or more sub-areas wherein each sub-area is isolated from other sub-areas by the determined one or more pairs of sectors having a weak connection zone. A first of the sub-areas is selected. Frequency groups are assigned to each sector within the first selected sub-area such that signal to noise ratio is optimized. Thereafter, a second of the sub-areas is selected. One or more sectors within the second selected one of the sub-areas which are linked to sectors within the first selected sub-area are selected. Frequency groups are assigned to the selected sectors within the selected second of the sub-areas such that signal to noise ratio in the selected sector within the selected second of the sub-areas is optimized. Thereafter, frequency groups are assigned to every other sector within the selected second of the sub-areas such that signal to noise ratio is optimized across the second selected sub-area and such that signal to noise ratio over the defined geographic area is optimized.

Multispectral or hyperspectral imaging system and method for tactical reconnaissance

A two-dimensional focal plane array (FPA) is divided into sub-arrays of rows and columns of pixels, each sub-array being responsive to light energy from a target object which has been separated by a spectral filter or other spectrum dividing element into a predetermined number of spectral bands. There is preferably one sub-array on the FPA for each predetermined spectral band. Each sub-array has its own read out channel to allow parallel and simultaneous readout of all sub-arrays of the array. The scene is scanned onto the array for simultaneous imaging of the terrain in many spectral bands. Time Delay and Integrate (TDI) techniques are used as a clocking mechanism within the sub-arrays to increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the detected image. Additionally, the TDI length (i.e., number of rows of integration during the exposure) within each sub-array is adjustable to optimize and normalize the response of the photosensitive substrate to each spectral band. The array provides for parallel and simultaneous readout of each sub-array to increase the collection rate of the spectral imagery. All of these features serve to provide a substantial improvement in the area coverage of a hyperspectral imaging system while at the same time increasing the SNR of the detected spectral image.

Transmitter patterns for multi beam reception

Provided herein is a method for use in medical applications that permits (1) affordable three-dimensional imaging of blood flow using a low-profile easily-attached transducer pad, (2) real-time blood-flow vector velocity, and (3) long-term unattended Doppler-ultrasound monitoring in spite of motion of the patient or pad. The pad and associated processor collects and Doppler processes ultrasound blood velocity data in a three dimensional region through the use of a planar phased array of piezoelectric elements. The invention locks onto and tracks the points in three-dimensional space that produce the locally maximum blood velocity signals. The integrated coordinates of points acquired by the accurate tracking process is used to form a three-dimensional map of blood vessels and provide a display that can be used to select multiple points of interest for expanded data collection and for long term continuous and unattended blood flow monitoring. The three dimensional map allows for the calculation of vector velocity from measured radial Doppler.
A thinned array (greater than half-wavelength element spacing of the transducer array) is used to make a device of the present invention inexpensive and allow the pad to have a low profile (fewer connecting cables for a given spatial resolution). The full aperture is used for transmit and receive so that there is no loss of sensitivity (signal-to-noise ratio) or dynamic range. Utilizing more elements (extending the physical array) without increasing the number of active elements increases the angular field of view. A further increase is obtained by utilizing a convex non-planar surface.
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