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12141 results about "Spectrometer" patented technology

A spectrometer (/spɛkˈtrɒmɪtər/) is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon. Spectrometer is a broad term often used to describe instruments that measure a continuous variable of a phenomenon where the spectral components are somehow mixed. In visible light a spectrometer can separate white light and measure individual narrow bands of color, called a spectrum. A mass spectrometer measures the spectrum of the masses of the atoms or molecules present in a gas. The first spectrometers were used to split light into an array of separate colors. Spectrometers were developed in early studies of physics, astronomy, and chemistry. The capability of spectroscopy to determine chemical composition drove its advancement and continues to be one of its primary uses. Spectrometers are used in astronomy to analyze the chemical composition of stars and planets, and spectrometers gather data on the origin of the universe.

Mass spectrometry with segmented RF multiple ion guides in various pressure regions

A mass spectrometer is configured with individual multipole ion guides, configured in an assembly in alignment along a common centerline wherein at least a portion of at least one multipole ion guide mounted in the assembly resides in a vacuum region with higher background pressure, and the other portion resides in a vacuum region with lower background pressure. Said multipole ion guides are operated in mass to charge selection and ion fragmentation modes, in either a high or low pressure region, said region being selected according to the optimum pressure or pressure gradient for the function performed. The diameter, lengths and applied frequencies and phases on these contiguous ion guides may be the same or may differ. A variety of MS and MS/MSn analysis functions can be achieved using a series of contiguous multipole ion guides operating in either higher background vacuum pressures, or along pressure gradients in the region where the pressure drops from high to low pressure, or in low pressure regions. Individual sets of RF, +/−DC and resonant frequency waveform voltage supplies provide potentials to the rods of each multipole ion guide allowing the operation of ion transmission, ion trapping, mass to charge selection and ion fragmentation functions independently in each ion guide. The presence of background pressure maintained sufficiently high to cause ion to neutral gas collisions along a portion of each multiple ion guide linear assembly allows the conducting of Collisional Induced Dissociation (CID) fragmentation of ions by axially accelerating ions from one multipole ion guide into an adjacent ion guide. Alternatively ions can be fragmented in one or more multipole ion guides using resonant frequency excitation CID. A multiple multipole ion guide assembly can be configured as the primary mass analyzer in single or triple quadrupole mass analyzers with or without mass selective axial ejection. Alternatively, the multiple multipole ion guide linear assembly can be configured as part of a hybrid Time-Of-Flight, Magnetic Sector, Ion Trap or Fourier Transform mass analyzer.

Mass spectrometer system

During the structural analysis of a protein or peptide by tandem mass spectroscopy, a peptide ion derived from a protein that has already been measured and that is expressed in great quantities is avoided as a tandem mass spectroscopy target. A peptide derived from a minute amount of protein, which has heretofore been difficult to analyze, can be automatically determined as a tandem mass spectroscopy target within the real time of measurement. Data concerning a protein that has already been measured and a peptide derived from the protein is automatically stored in an internal database. The stored data is collated with measured data with high accuracy to determine an isotope peak. In this way, the process of selecting a peptide peak that has not been measured as the target for the next tandem analysis can be performed within the real time of measurement and a redundant measurement of peptides derived from the same protein can be avoided. The information contained in the MSn spectrum is effectively utilized in each step of the MSn involving a multi-stage dissociation and mass spectroscopy (MSn), so that the flows for the determination of the next analysis content and the selection of the parent ion for the MSn+1 analysis, for example, can be optimized within the real time of measurement and with high efficiency and accuracy. Thus, a target of concern to the user can be subjected to tandem mass spectroscopy without wasteful measurement.

Optical spectroscopy apparatus and method for measurement of analyte concentrations or other such species in a specimen employing a semiconductor laser-pumped, small-cavity fiber laser

An optical spectroscopy apparatus determines the concentration of analyte in a specimen that utilizes a single radiation source which is hybrid laser comprising a semiconductor pump laser and small-cavity rare earth fiber laser where laser cavities of both lasers are butt coupled or otherwise optically coupled to form a plurality of laser cavities that produce a plurality of emission wavelengths, one which may be the pump laser emission wavelength at the output of the fiber laser thereby forming a multi-wavelength combined output where the wavelengths substantially match distinguishing spectral characteristic features along at least a portion of a characteristic optical spectrum of the analyte under examination. In lieu of complex data analysis of these wavelengths to determine values representing the concentration of the analyte in an examined specimen, the semiconductor pump laser or lasers are modulated as a plurality of tone frequencies, where at least a first of the modulation frequencies is below the maximum frequency response of the fiber laser so that the first modulation effectively modulates the pump emission wavelength and a first emission wavelength of the fiber laser in the hybrid laser combined output, and at least a second of modulation frequencies is above the maximum frequency response of the fiber laser so that the second modulation effectively modulates the pump emission wavelength but not the first emission wavelength of the fiber laser in the hybrid laser combined output. Further, one or more additional modulation frequencies may be applied to the pump laser which are intermediate of the first and second modulation frequencies where it is at least responsive to at least one further emission wavelength of the fiber laser and also provided in the hybrid laser combined output.
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