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2810 results about "Ionization" patented technology

Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.The resulting electrically charged atom or molecule is called an ion. Ionization can result from the loss of an electron after collisions with subatomic particles, collisions with other atoms, molecules and ions, or through the interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Heterolytic bond cleavage and heterolytic substitution reactions can result in the formation of ion pairs. Ionization can occur through radioactive decay by the internal conversion process, in which an excited nucleus transfers its energy to one of the inner-shell electrons causing it to be ejected.

Laser desorption ion source

Atmospheric pressure, intermediate pressure and vacuum laser desorption ionization methods and ion sources are configured to increase ionization efficiency and the efficiency of transmitting ions to a mass to charge analyzer or ion mobility analyzer. An electric field is applied in the region of a sample target to accumulate ions generated from a local ion source on a solid or liquid phase sample prior to applying a laser desorption pulse. The electric field is changed just prior to or during the desorption laser pulse to promote the desorption of charged species and improve the ionization efficiency of desorbed sample species. After a delay, the electric field may be further changed to optimize focusing and transmission of ions into a mass spectrometer or ion mobility analyzer. Charged species may also be added to the region of the laser desorbed sample plume to promote ion-molecule reactions between the added ions and desorbed neutral sample species, increasing desorbed sample ionization efficiency and/or creating desired product ion species. The cycling of electric field changes is repeated in a timed sequence with one or more desorption laser pulse occurring per electric field change cycle. Embodiments of the invention comprise atmospheric pressure, intermediate pressure and vacuum pressure laser desorption ionization source methods and devices for increasing the analytical flexibility and improving the sensitivity of mass spectrometric analysis.

Method and arrangement for the efficient generation of short-wavelength radiation based on a laser-generated plasma

The invention is directed to a method and an arrangement for the efficient generation of intensive short-wavelength radiation based on a plasma. The object of the invention is to find a novel possibility for the generation of intensive short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation, particularly EUV radiation, which permits the excitation of a radiation-emitting plasma with economical gas lasers (preferably CO2 lasers). This object is met, according to the invention, in that a first prepulse for reducing the target density is followed by at least a second prepulse which generates free electrons in the target by multiphoton ionization after a virtually complete recombination of free electrons generated by the first prepulse has taken place due to a long-lasting expansion of the target for reducing the target density, and the main pulse of a gas laser with a low critical electron density typical for its wavelength is directed to the target immediately after the second prepulse when the second prepulse in the expanded target, whose ion density corresponds to the critical electron density of the gas laser, has created enough free electrons so that an efficient avalanche ionization is triggered by the main pulse of the gas laser until reaching the ionization level for the desired radiation emission of the plasma.
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