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169638 results about "Solvent" patented technology

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as paint thinners (e.g. toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvents (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g. hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes) and in perfumes (ethanol). Water is a solvent for polar molecules and the most common solvent used by living things; all the ions and proteins in a cell are dissolved in water within a cell. Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, oil, and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes.

Protein stabilized pharmacologically active agents, methods for the preparation thereof and methods for the use thereof

In accordance with the present invention, there are provided compositions and methods useful for the in vivo delivery of substantially water insoluble pharmacologically active agents (such as the anticancer drug paclitaxel) in which the pharmacologically active agent is delivered in the form of suspended particles coated with protein (which acts as a stabilizing agent). In particular, protein and pharmacologically active agent in a biocompatible dispersing medium are subjected to high shear, in the absence of any conventional surfactants, and also in the absence of any polymeric core material for the particles. The procedure yields particles with a diameter of less than about 1 micron. The use of specific composition and preparation conditions (e.g., addition of a polar solvent to the organic phase), and careful election of the proper organic phase and phase fraction, enables the reproducible production of unusually small nanoparticles of less than 200 nm diameter, which can be sterile-filtered. The particulate system produced according to the invention can be converted into a redispersible dry powder comprising nanoparticles of water-insoluble drug coated with a protein, and free protein to which molecules of the pharmacological agent are bound. This results in a unique delivery system, in which part of the pharmacologically active agent is readily bioavailable (in the form of molecules bound to the protein), and part of the agent is present within particles without any polymeric matrix therein.

Ruthenium containing layer deposition method

An exemplary apparatus and method of forming a ruthenium tetroxide containing gas to form a ruthenium containing layer on a surface of a substrate is described herein. The method and apparatus described herein may be especially useful for fabricating electronic devices that are formed on a surface of the substrate or wafer. Generally, the method includes exposing a surface of a substrate to a ruthenium tetroxide vapor to form a catalytic layer on the surface of a substrate and then filling the device structures by an electroless, electroplating, physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD) or plasma enhanced ALD (PE-ALD) processes. In one embodiment, the ruthenium containing layer is formed on a surface of a substrate by creating ruthenium tetroxide in an external vessel and then delivering the generated ruthenium tetroxide gas to a surface of a temperature controlled substrate positioned in a processing chamber. In one embodiment, a ruthenium tetroxide containing solvent formation process is used to form ruthenium tetroxide using a ruthenium tetroxide containing source material. In one embodiment, of a ruthenium containing layer is formed on a surface of a substrate, using the ruthenium tetroxide containing solvent. In another embodiment, the solvent is separated from the ruthenium tetroxide containing solvent mixture and the remaining ruthenium tetroxide is used to form a ruthenium containing layer on the surface of a substrate.

Compositions for rapid and non-irritating transdermal delivery of pharmaceutically active agents and methods for formulating such compositions and delivery thereof

InactiveUS6444234B1Effective therapeutic doseReduced barrier effectBiocideCosmetic preparationsSolventActive agent
Pharmaceutical compositions for the transdermal administration of a medicament or other active agent by topical application of the composition to the skin of humans or other animals are described. Methodology for formulating such compositions which provide for very rapid uptake of the medicament and transmigration into and through the skin to either fatty tissues or the vascular system, while minimizing irritation to the skin and/or immunological response, is based on a transdermal delivery system (TDS) wherein the medicament is modified to form a true solution in a complex formed from particular solvents and solvent and solute modifiers in combination with skin stabilizers. Uptake of the medicament is further facilitated and made more rapid by including Forskolin or other source of cellular energy, namely induction of cAMP or cGMP. Selection of specific solvents and solvent and solute modifiers and other functional ingredients and the amounts thereof are chosen such that there is a balance between the sum of the mole-moments [(molar amount of each individual ingredient)x(dipole moment of that ingredient)] of the delivery system and the sum of the moler moments of the composition in which the medicament is dissolved. Preferably, the van der Waals forces of the delivery system is also similarly matched to the van der Waals forces of the total composition, namely, delivery system plus active agent.
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