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Bonded nonwoven fibrous webs comprising softenable oriented semicrystalline polymeric fibers and apparatus and methods for preparing such webs

ActiveUS20080038976A1Enhances useEnhance utilityLayered productsWoven fabricsQuenchingFiber structure
A method for making a bonded nonwoven fibrous web comprising 1) providing a nonwoven fibrous web that comprises oriented semicrystalline polymeric fibers, and 2) subjecting the web to a controlled heating and quenching operation that includes a) forcefully passing through the web a fluid heated to at least the onset melting temperature of said polymeric material for a time too short to wholly melt the fibers, and b) immediately quenching the web by forcefully passing through the web a fluid at a temperature at least 50° C. less than the Nominal Melting Point of the material of the fibers. The fibers of the treated web generally have i) an amorphous-characterized phase that exhibits repeatable softening (making the fibers softenable) and ii) a crystallite-characterized phase that reinforces the fiber structure during softening of the amorphous-characterized phase, whereby the fibers may be autogenously bonded while retaining orientation and fiber structure. Apparatus for carrying out the method can comprise 1) a conveyor for conveying a web to be treated, 2) a heater mounted adjacent a first side of the conveyor and comprising a) a chamber having a wall that faces the web, b) one or more conduits through which a heated gas can be introduced into the chamber under pressure and c) a slot in said chamber wall through which heated gas flows from the chamber onto a web on the conveyor, 3) a source of quenching gas downweb from the heater on the first side of the conveyor, the quenching gas having a temperature substantially less than that of the heated gas, 4) gas-withdrawal mean disposed on the second side of the conveyor opposite from the heater, the gas-withdrawal means having a portion in alignment with the slot so as to draw heated gas from the slot through the web and also a portion downweb from the slot in alignment with the source of quenching gas so as to draw the quenching gas through the web to quench the web. Flow restrictor means is preferably disposed on the second side of the conveyor in the path of at least one of the heated gas and the quenching gas so as to even the distribution of the gas through the web.
Owner:3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES CO

File storage system, cache appliance, and method

A file storage system for storing data of a file received from a client includes a back-end file server in which the data is stored. The system includes a cache appliance in communication with the file server, such that the appliance stores portions of the data or attributes of the file, and uses the stored data or attributes to process file system requests received from the client, and which reads and writes data and attributes to the back-end file server independently. A system for responding to a file system protocol request in regard to a back-end server includes a token server. The system includes a plurality of cache appliances in communication with the token server, each of which receives tokens from the token server to synchronize access to data and attributes caches of the cache appliances, and reading and writing data and attributes to the back-end servers when tokens are revoked, the cache appliance having persistent storage in which data are stored, and the token server having persistent storage in which tokens are stored. A storage system includes a plurality of backend servers. The system includes a token server which grants permission to read and write file attributes and data system, and includes a plurality of cache appliances in communication with at least one of the backend servers and the token server for processing an incoming NFS request to the one backend server. Each cache appliance comprises an NFS server which converts incoming NFS requests into cache manager operations; a token client module in communication with the token server having a cache of tokens obtained from the token server; a cache manager that caches data and attributes and uses tokens from the token client module to ensure that the cached data or attributes are the most recent data or attributes, and an NFS client which sends outgoing NFS requests to the back-end file server. Methods for storing data of a file received from a client.
Owner:MICROSOFT TECH LICENSING LLC

Method for preparing graphene or graphene oxide by using high-efficiency and low-cost mechanical stripping

The invention provides a method for preparing graphene or graphene oxide by using high-efficiency and low-cost mechanical stripping and relates to a preparation method of the graphene or the graphene oxide, solving the problems that the traditional micro-mechanical stripping method has low efficiency and can not be used for large-batch production. The method comprises the following step of separating carbon materials by utilizing solid particles and a liquid working medium (or gas working medium) and adopting mechanical stripping to obtain the graphene or the graphene oxide, wherein the carbon materials comprise graphite powder, expanded graphite, expandable graphite or graphite powder oxide. By using automatic machinery and using a great deal of solid particles for assisting stripping processes, the invention greatly increases the contact areas and the stripping times of the stripping processes, the carbon materials are subject to a great amount of stripping processes in a short time through the shearing and impacting functions of the solid particles on the carbon materials, and thereby the method obviously improves the stripping efficiency, has low cost and is suitable for the industrial and large-batch production of the graphene or the graphene oxide.
Owner:HARBIN INST OF TECH

Path recovery on failure in load balancing switch protocols

A method for managing multiple active paths among a plurality of network switches to identify and select an alternate path in response to failure of a path from a switch to a device. Load balancing protocols of the present invention enable the simultaneous use of multiple paths between network devices through a mesh of compliant network switches. When a port of a network switch fails (or the link connected to a port fails), a switch in accordance with the present invention selects an alternate port which may be used for forwarding packets to devices normally reached through the failed port. Networks switches operable in accordance with the structures and protocols of the present invention exchange messages to identify potential alternate paths. A potential alternate path is used to send a query message to a neighboring network switch to determine if a path to the identified devices is available through the neighboring network switch. Such query messages are propagated through all intermediate network switches between the switch sensing the failed port up to the identified network device. Acknowledgment messages are returned to verify potential availability of an alternate path. Where an intermediate network switch determines that the complete path is not available through it to the identified device, or where a potentially better path exists, a regenerated query message so indicating is returned along the path that initiated the query message.
Owner:HEWLETT-PACKARD ENTERPRISE DEV LP
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