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60177 results about "Coal" patented technology

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements; chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times.

Catalytic multi-stage process for hydroconversion and refining hydrocarbon feeds

A multi-stage catalytic hydrogenation and hydroconversion process for heavy hydrocarbon feed materials such as coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and plastic waste materials. In the process, the feedstock is reacted in a first-stage, back-mixed catalytic reactor with a highly dispersed iron-based catalyst having a powder, gel or liquid form. The reactor effluent is pressure-reduced, vapors and light distillate fractions are removed overhead, and the heavier liquid fraction is fed to a second stage back-mixed catalytic reactor. The first and second stage catalytic reactors are operated at 700-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure and 20-80 lb./hr per ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The vapor and light distillates liquid fractions removed from both the first and second stage reactor effluent streams are combined and passed to an in-line, fixed-bed catalytic hydrotreater for heteroatom removal and for producing high quality naphtha and mid-distillate or a full-range distillate product. The remaining separator bottoms liquid fractions are distilled at successive atmospheric and vacuum pressures, low and intermediate-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products are withdrawn, and heavier distillate fractions are recycled and further upgraded to provide additional low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products. This catalytic multistage hydrogenation process provides improved flexibility for hydroprocessing the various carbonaceous feedstocks and adjusting to desired product structures and for improved economy of operations.
Owner:HEADWATERS CTL

Processes for Preparing a Catalyzed Coal Particulate

Processes are provided for preparing a substantially free-flowing alkali metal gasification catalyst-loaded coal particulate suitable for use as a feedstock for the production of gaseous products, and in particular methane, via the catalytic gasification of the catalyst-loaded coal particulate in the presence of steam.
Owner:SURE CHAMPION INVESTMENT LTD

Coal mine down-hole drilling hydraulic fracturing anti-reflection mash gas extraction technique

The invention relates to a hydraulic fracturing anti-reflection technology for pumping and exploring gas by drilling a hole in a coal mine well, comprising the following steps sequentially: (1) selecting a fracturing location; (2) determining the pressure type according to observed coal type, laneway arrangement and construction development degree, and ways of top soleplate bedding plane borehole hydraulic fracturing, top soleplate translamellar borehole hydraulic fracturing, the coal bed bedding plane borehole hydraulic fracturing or the coal bed translamellar borehole hydraulic fracturing can be adopted; (3) determining borehole parameters for constructing drilling, wherein, the borehole parameters include borehole length, borehole height, aperture, obliquity angle and azimuth angle; (4) designing the hydraulic fracturing, including injected water volume and injection pressure; (5) borehole washing; (6) draining; (7) examining the fracturing effect, if the fracturing effect is in accordance with the requirement, the following step is carried out, if not, turning to step (4); and (8) entering a pipeline for pumping and discharging. The technology enhances the air permeability of the coal bed, reduces the gas emission rate of an excavation working face, and obviously promotes the pumping and exploring capability and the pumping and exploring effect of the single borehole. The pumping and discharging efficiency is improved, the pumping and discharging time is shortened and the damage of the gas is maximally eliminated.
Owner:HENAN POLYTECHNIC UNIV

Method of converting triglycerides to biofuels

A triglyceride-to-fuel conversion process including the steps of (a) preconditioning unsaturated triglycerides by catalytic conjugation, cyclization, and cross-link steps; (b) contacting the modified triglycerides with hot-compressed water containing a catalyst, wherein cracking, hydrolysis, decarboxylation, dehydration, aromatization, or isomerization, or any combination thereof, of the modified triglycerides produce a crude hydrocarbon oil and an aqueous phase containing glycerol and lower molecular weight molecules, and (c) refining the crude hydrocarbon oil to produce various grades of biofuels. A triglyceride-to-fuel conversion process further including the steps of (a) carrying out anaerobic fermentation and decarboxylation / dehydration, wherein the anaerobic fermentation produces hydrogen, volatile acids, and alcohols from fermentable feedstocks, and the decarboxylation / dehydration produces alkenes from the volatile acids and alcohols, respectively; (b) feeding the alkenes to the cyclization process; (c) feeding the hydrogen to the post refining process; and (d) recycling the aqueous phase containing glycerol to the decarboxylation / dehydration process. A biofuel composition including straight-chain, branched and cyclo paraffins, and aromatics. The paraffins are derived from conversion of triglycerides. The aromatics are derived from conversion of either triglycerides, petroleum, or coal.
Owner:APPLIED RES ASSOCS INC

Coal-rock hydraulic fracturing testing method under true triaxial state

The invention discloses a coal-rock hydraulic fracturing testing method under a true triaxial state. The coal-rock hydraulic fracturing testing method under the true triaxial state comprises the following steps: 1) preparing a test piece; 2) installing the test piece; 3) pre-loading; 4) loading; 5) hydraulically fracturing; 6) unloading; 7) storing all data recorded by a data collection system, taking out the test piece and observing the shape of the test piece. According to the coal-rock hydraulic fracturing testing method, the real work condition can be more really simulated, and a theoretical basis is provided for solving on-site problems.
Owner:CHONGQING UNIV
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