Treatment fluids containing biodegradable chelating agents and methods for use thereof are described. The methods can comprise providing a treatment fluid that comprises an aqueous base fluid and a chelating agent composition, and introducing the treatment fluid into at least a portion of a subterranean formation. The treatment fluids can also be used for treatment of pipes or tubing such as, for example, well bore pipes or tubing penetrating a subterranean formation and above-ground pipelines. Illustrative biodegradable chelating agents include, but are not limited to, glutamic acid diacetic acid, methylglycine diacetic acid, β-alanine diacetic acid, S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid, iminodisuccinic acid, hydroxyiminodisuccinic acid, any salt thereof, any derivative thereof, and any combination thereof. The treatment fluids can optionally comprise an acid, which can include hydrofluoric acid or a hydrofluoric acid generating compound.