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6178 results about "Reaction zone" patented technology

Reaction zone. [rē′ak·shən ‚zōn] (chemical engineering) In a catalytic reactor vessel, the location or zone within the vessel where the bulk of the chemical reaction takes place.

Industrial Wastewater Microwave Electrodeless UV Photocatalysis-Double Membrane Separation Coupling Treatment Device

The present invention is an industrial waste water microwave electrodeless ultraviolet photocatalysis-dual membrane separation coupling treatment device, the device mainly consists of a reactor (1), a membrane separation system (2), a microwave electrodeless ultraviolet light source system (4), an aeration system, and an ozone tail gas decomposition device (7) connected to the reactor, and an inlet and outlet water system, wherein: the upper and lower parts of the reactor are respectively the reaction zone and the aeration zone, which are separated by a water distribution plate (5); the membrane separation system The microwave electrodeless ultraviolet light source system is located in the reaction zone and is separated by a corrugated partition (3); the aeration system is composed of a microporous aeration head (6) and a blower (8), and the microporous aeration head is located in the aeration At the bottom of the zone, the blower sends air to the aeration zone through the air duct. The invention has the characteristics of high reaction rate, complete degradation of organic matter, long-term operation and the like, and has strong operability and high safety. It is suitable for the treatment of refractory organic industrial wastewater, and it is also suitable for sterilization and disinfection in the field of water supply.

Electrochemical biosensor strip for analysis of liquid samples

A biosensor in the form of a strip. In one embodiment, the biosensor strip comprises an electrode support, a first electrode, i.e., a working electrode, a second electrode, i.e., a counter electrode, and a third electrode, i.e., a reference electrode. Each of the electrodes is disposed on and supported by the electrode support. Each of the electrodes is spaced apart from the other two electrodes. The biosensor strip can include a covering layer, which defines an enclosed space over the electrodes. This enclosed space includes a zone where an analyte in the sample reacts with reagent(s) deposited at the working electrode. This zone is referred to as the reaction zone. The covering layer has an aperture for receiving a sample for introduction into the reaction zone. The biosensor strip can also include at least one layer of mesh interposed in the enclosed space between the covering layer and the electrodes in the reaction zone. This layer of mesh facilitates transporting of the sample to the electrodes in the reaction zone. In another embodiment, a biosensor strip can be constructed to provide a configuration that will allow the sample to be introduced to the reaction zone by action of capillary force. In this embodiment, the layer of mesh can be omitted. The invention also provides a method for determining the concentration of glucose in a sample of whole blood by using the biosensor of this invention.

Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

Process to produce low viscosity poly-alpha-olefins

This invention relates to a process to produce a polyalpha-olefin comprising: 1) contacting one or more alpha-olefin monomers having 3 to 24 carbon atoms with an unbridged substituted bis cyclopentadienyl transition metal compound having: 1) at least one non-isoolefin substitution on both cyclopentadientyl rings, or 2) at least two substitutions on at least one cyclopentadienyl ring, a non-coordinating anion activator, and optionally an alkyl-aluminum compound, where the molar ratio of transition metal compound to activator is 10:1 to 0.1:1, and if the alkyl aluminum compound is present then the molar ratio of alkyl aluminum compound to transition metal compound is 1:4 to 4000:1, under polymerization conditions wherein: i) hydrogen is present at a partial pressure of 0.1 to 50 psi, based upon the total pressure of the reactor or the concentration of the hydrogen is from 1 to 10,000 ppm or less by weight; ii) wherein the alpha-olefin monomer(s) having 3 to 24 carbon atoms are present at 10 volume % or more based upon the total volume of the catalyst/activator/alkylaluminum compound solutions, monomers, and any diluents or solvents present in the reaction; iii) the residence time of the reaction is at least 5 minutes; iv) the productivity of the process is at least 43,000 grams of total product per gram of transition metal compound; v) the process is continuous or semi-continuous, and vi) the temperature in the reaction zone does not rise by more than 10° C. during the reaction; and vii) ethylene is not present at more than 30 volume % of the monomers entering the reaction zone; and 2) obtaining a polyalpha-olefin (PAO), optionally hydrogenating the PAO, wherein the PAO comprises at least 50 mole % of a C3 to C24 alpha-olefin monomer, and wherein the PAO has a kinematic viscosity at 100° C. of 20 cSt or less.

Devices and methods for microarray selection

The present invention relates to a device for the specific selection of target molecules, comprising: (a) at least one reaction zone comprising a microarray, wherein the microarray comprises a substrate, on which one or more species of capture molecules are immobilized, comprising one or more temperature control and/or regulating units for controlling and/or regulating the temperature within the zone; (b) at least one non-reaction zone comprising one or more temperature control and/or regulating units for controlling and/or regulating the temperature within the zone, which is in fluid connection with the reaction zone; and (c) at least one transportation means capable of generating and/or regulating a fluid flow between said reaction zone (a) and said non-reaction zone comprising one or more temperature control and/or regulating units (b). The present invention further relates to a device for the specific selection of target molecules wherein the immobilized capture molecules are organized in the microarray in the form of spots, elongated spots and/or lines. In a further aspect the present invention relates to a method of specifically selecting target molecules, comprising the introducing a medium to such a device, performing interaction reactions in a reaction zone, transporting not interacted or not bound target molecules to a zone allowing reactivation of the target molecules and performing additional interaction reactions with the reactivated target molecules at the reaction zone, as well as the use of such a device for specifically selecting target molecules, e.g. for target enrichment also referred to as microarray based genome selection (MGS) in the literature.

Catalytic oxidation process

A process for the partial catalytic oxidation of a hydrocarbon containing feed comprising contacting the feed with an oxygen-containing gas in the presence of a catalyst retained within a reaction zone in a fixed arrangement, wherein the catalyst comprises at least one catalytically active metal selected from the group consisting of silver and Group VIII elements supported on a porous ceramic carrier. The porous ceramic carrier has a distribution of total pores wherein about 70% of the total pores (1) have a volume-to-surface area (V/S) ration that is within about 20% of the mean V/S value for the total pores and no pores have a V/S ration that is greater than twice the mean V/S value for the total pores; (2) have a pore-to-pore distance between neighboring pores that is within about 25% of the mean pore-to-pore distance between neighboring pores; and (3) have a pore throat area that is within about 50% of the mean pore throat are for the pores. Additionally, about 50% of the total pores have a coordination number between neighboring pores that is within about 25% of the mean coordination number between neighboring pores. Preferably, the oxidation process comprises a multistage, staged oxygen, catalytic partial oxidation process having fewer than or equal to about five stages and including a first stage preheat temperature of greater than about 550° C., and wherein the temperature of the product mixture in each stage following the first stage is at least about 700° C.
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