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8610results about "From chemically reactive gases" patented technology

Doped elongated semiconductors, growing such semiconductors, devices including such semiconductors and fabricating such devices

A bulk-doped semiconductor that is at least one of the following: a single crystal, an elongated and bulk-doped semiconductor that, at any point along its longitudinal axis, has a largest cross-sectional dimension less than 500 nanometers, and a free-standing and bulk-doped semiconductor with at least one portion having a smallest width of less than 500 nanometers. Such a semiconductor may comprise an interior core comprising a first semiconductor; and an exterior shell comprising a different material than the first semiconductor. Such a semiconductor may be elongated and my have, at any point along a longitudinal section of such a semiconductor, a ratio of the length of the section to a longest width is greater than 4:1, or greater than 10:1, or greater than 100:1, or even greater than 1000:1. At least one portion of such a semiconductor may a smallest width of less than 200 nanometers, or less than 150 nanometers, or less than 100 nanometers, or less than 80 nanometers, or less than 70 nanometers, or less than 60 nanometers, or less than 40 nanometers, or less than 20 nanometers, or less than 10 nanometers, or even less than 5 nanometers. Such a semiconductor may be a single crystal and may be free-standing. Such a semiconductor may be either lightly n-doped, heavily n-doped, lightly p-doped or heavily p-doped. Such a semiconductor may be doped during growth. Such a semiconductor may be part of a device, which may include any of a variety of devices and combinations thereof, and, and a variety of assembling techniques may be used to fabricate devices from such a semiconductor. Two or more of such a semiconductors, including an array of such semiconductors, may be combined to form devices, for example, to form a crossed p-n junction of a device. Such devices at certain sizes may exhibit quantum confinement and other quantum phenomena, and the wavelength of light emitted from one or more of such semiconductors may be controlled by selecting a width of such semiconductors. Such semiconductors and device made therefrom may be used for a variety of applications.

Method of and apparatus for tunable gas injection in a plasma processing system

A method of and apparatus for providing tunable gas injection in a plasma processing system (10, 10′). The apparatus includes a gas injection manifold (50) having a pressurizable plenum (150) and an array of adjustable nozzle units (250), or an array of non-adjustable nozzles (502, 602), through which gas from the plenum can flow into the interior region (40) of a plasma reactor chamber (14) capable of containing a plasma (41). The adjustable nozzle units include a nozzle plug (160) arranged within a nozzle bore (166). A variety of different nozzle units are disclosed. The nozzle plugs are axially translatable to adjust the flow of gas therethrough. In one embodiment, the nozzle plugs are attached to a plug plate (154), which is displacable relative to an injection plate (124) via displacement actuators (170) connecting the two plates. The displacement actuators are controlled by a displacement actuator control unit (180), which is in electronic communication with a plasma processing system control unit (80). The gas flow into the chamber interior region is preferably controlled by monitoring the pressure in the plenum and in the chamber and adjusting the nozzle units accordingly. Where the nozzle units are not adjustable, a portion of the nozzles are sized to a first flow condition, and another portion of the nozzles are sized to a second flow condition.

Thin films

Thin films are formed by formed by atomic layer deposition, whereby the composition of the film can be varied from monolayer to monolayer during cycles including alternating pulses of self-limiting chemistries. In the illustrated embodiments, varying amounts of impurity sources are introduced during the cyclical process. A graded gate dielectric is thereby provided, even for extremely thin layers. The gate dielectric as thin as 2 nm can be varied from pure silicon oxide to oxynitride to silicon nitride. Similarly, the gate dielectric can be varied from aluminum oxide to mixtures of aluminum oxide and a higher dielectric material (e.g., ZrO2) to pure high k material and back to aluminum oxide. In another embodiment, metal nitride (e.g., WN) is first formed as a barrier for lining dual damascene trenches and vias. During the alternating deposition process, copper can be introduced, e.g., in separate pulses, and the copper source pulses can gradually increase in frequency, forming a transition region, until pure copper is formed at the upper surface. Advantageously, graded compositions in these and a variety of other contexts help to avoid such problems as etch rate control, electromigration and non-ohmic electrical contact that can occur at sharp material interfaces. In some embodiments additional seed layers or additional transition layers are provided.
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