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3816 results about "Deposition process" patented technology

Thin films

Thin films are formed by formed by atomic layer deposition, whereby the composition of the film can be varied from monolayer to monolayer during cycles including alternating pulses of self-limiting chemistries. In the illustrated embodiments, varying amounts of impurity sources are introduced during the cyclical process. A graded gate dielectric is thereby provided, even for extremely thin layers. The gate dielectric as thin as 2 nm can be varied from pure silicon oxide to oxynitride to silicon nitride. Similarly, the gate dielectric can be varied from aluminum oxide to mixtures of aluminum oxide and a higher dielectric material (e.g., ZrO2) to pure high k material and back to aluminum oxide. In another embodiment, metal nitride (e.g., WN) is first formed as a barrier for lining dual damascene trenches and vias. During the alternating deposition process, copper can be introduced, e.g., in separate pulses, and the copper source pulses can gradually increase in frequency, forming a transition region, until pure copper is formed at the upper surface. Advantageously, graded compositions in these and a variety of other contexts help to avoid such problems as etch rate control, electromigration and non-ohmic electrical contact that can occur at sharp material interfaces. In some embodiments additional seed layers or additional transition layers are provided.

Uniform batch film deposition process and films so produced

A batch of wafer substrates is provided with each wafer substrate having a surface. Each surface is coated with a layer of material applied simultaneously to the surface of each of the batch of wafer substrates. The layer of material is applied to a thickness that varies less than four thickness percent across the surface and exclusive of an edge boundary and having a wafer-to-wafer thickness variation of less than three percent. The layer of material so applied is a silicon oxide, silicon nitride or silicon oxynitride with the layer of material being devoid of carbon and chlorine. Formation of silicon oxide or a silicon oxynitride requires the inclusion of a co-reactant. Silicon nitride is also formed with the inclusion of a nitrification co-reactant. A process for forming such a batch of wafer substrates involves feeding the precursor into a reactor containing a batch of wafer substrates and reacting the precursor at a wafer substrate temperature, total pressure, and precursor flow rate sufficient to create such a layer of material. The delivery of a precursor and co-reactant as needed through vertical tube injectors having multiple orifices with at least one orifice in registry with each of the batch of wafer substrates and exit slits within the reactor to create flow across the surface of each of the wafer substrates in the batch provides the within-wafer and wafer-to-wafer uniformity.
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