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792 results about "Exothermic reaction" patented technology

An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy through light or heat. It is the opposite of an endothermic reaction. Expressed in a chemical equation: reactants → products + energy. Exothermic Reaction means "exo" (derived from the greek word: "έξω", literally translated to "out") meaning releases and "thermic" means heat. So the reaction in which there is release of heat with or without light is called exothermic reaction.

Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.


A straightforward and scalable solid-state synthesis at 975° C. used to generate cathode materials in the system Li(3+x)3Ni(1-x-y)CoyMn2x/3O2 {a combination of LiNiO2, Li2MnO3, and LiCoO2 as (1-x-y)LiNiO2.xLi2MnO3.yLiCoO2} is described. Coatings for improving the characteristics of the cathode material are also described. A ternary composition diagram was used to select sample points, and compositions for testing were initially chosen in an arrangement conducive to mathematical modeling. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization showed the formation of an α-NaFeO2 structure, except in the region of compositions close to LiNiO2. Electrochemical testing revealed a wide range of electrochemical capacities with the highest capacities found in a region of high Li2MnO3 content. The highest capacity composition identified was Li1.222Mn0.444Ni0.167Co0.167O2 with a maximum initial discharge capacity of in the voltage range 4.6-2.0 V. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) testing on this material was promising as it showed an exothermic reaction of 0.2 W/g at 200° C. when tested up to 400° C. Cost for laboratory quantities of material yielded $1.49/Ah, which is significantly lower than the cost of LiCoO2 due to the low cobalt content, and the straightforward synthesis. Li1.222Mn0.444Ni0.167Co0.167O2 is thought to be near optimum composition for the specified synthesis conditions, and shows excellent capacity and safety characteristics while leaving room for optimization in composition, synthesis conditions, and surface treatment.

Gasification process for producing synthesis gas from garbage and biomass raw materials

The invention provides a gasification process for producing synthesis gas from garbage and biomass raw materials, which relates to a gasification processing technique of garbage and biomasses. The gasification process is characterized in that the technological process mainly comprises a raw material solid matter process, a gas phase circulation loop, a calcium oxide circulation loop and a synthesis gas drawing process; one or a mixture of more garbage, the biomasses and coal is sent into a gasification furnace to perform gasification so as to generate the synthesis gas; and simultaneously, calcium oxide is sent into the gasification furnace, an exothermic reaction of absorbing carbon dioxide by the calcium oxide provides the heat required by the gasification reaction in the furnace, and water vapor is sent into a plasma spraying gun and is heated to more than 3,100 DEG C to generate H2, O, O2 and H2O<*> which are sprayed into the gasification furnace to perform reactions with the garbage and the biomasses and supply heat into the furnace. The gasification process adopts a measure to spray the calcium oxide into the furnace to not only greatly reduce the electric energy consumption of the plasma spraying gun, but also improve the quality and the yield of the synthesis gas, thus the aim of transforming the garbage and the biomasses into clean energy can be achieved easily.

Method for preparing naphthalene sulphonic acid by sulfonating sulfur trioxide in microreactor

The invention relates to a method for preparing naphthalene sulphonic acid by sulfonating sulfur trioxide in a microreactor, belonging to methods for preparing dye intermediates in the field of fine chemical engineering. The method comprises the following steps: taking alkyl halide and nitromethane as an organic solvent, naphthalene and derivative thereof as the raw material and organic solution of liquid sulfur trioxide as a sulfonating agent, preparing a solution according to the mol ratio of the organic solvent, the raw material and the sulfonating agent of 19-74:1:1-3 in the microreactor of with channel with the diameter of 10-50 microns, and sulfonating the reaction solution to prepare the naphthalene sulphonic acid by controlling the sulfonation reaction temperature to be between 17DEG C below zero and90 DEG C. The method adopts a continuous flow reactor, solves the problem of impossible transient mixing in the conventional reactor, prevents secondary reaction caused by local excess, and is especially suitable for strong exothermic reaction, fast reaction and flammable and explosive reaction. Compared with the preparation technology in the traditional batch reactor, the invention has the advantages of no generation of waste water and waste acid, clean and environment-friendly technology, consumption of sulphonic acid close to the theoretical quantity, fast reaction speed, low sulfonation temperature, high product yield, good repeatability, high labor productivity and low equipment cost.
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