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50795 results about "Pollutant" patented technology

A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource. A pollutant may cause long- or short-term damage by changing the growth rate of plant or animal species, or by interfering with human amenities, comfort, health, or property values. Some pollutants are biodegradable and therefore will not persist in the environment in the long term. However, the degradation products of some pollutants are themselves polluting such as the products DDE and DDD produced from the degradation of DDT.

Water treatment process for membranes

InactiveUS6416668B1Effective and safe and reliable to produceCapital and operating costMembranesUltrafiltrationZeta potentialFiltration
This invention discloses a cost-effective process for separating contaminants and a wide-range of fouling material from surface water, ground water and from industrial effluents. Having undergone effective pre-treatment, the water can be purified further by using high-surface area spirally wound micro-filtration (MF), ultra-filtration (UF), nano-filtration (NF) or reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. High-quality potable water free from pathogen and other contaminants is thus produced at low-cost from the pre-treated surface water and ground-water. Conversely, pre-treated industrial effluents are further purified at a relatively low-cost using NF or RO membranes, thus producing water suitable for recycle or surface discharge. The process of this invention uses cationic inorganic and/or polymeric flocculants to coagulate and flocculate the water-borne colloidal matter (e.g. clays, iron hydroxides, naturally occurring matter (NOM's), etc.), followed by filtration using a multi-media filter, charge neutralization and reversal and final filtration using a 5-micron cartridge filter. These pre-treatment steps provides a good quality water having a low Silt Density Index and a significant negative zeta potential, thereby ensuring against irreversible chemical fouling of the spirally-wound membranes.

Synthetic and biologically-derived products produced using biomass produced by photobioreactors configured for mitigation of pollutants in flue gases

Certain embodiments and aspects of the present invention relate to photobioreactor apparatus designed to contain a liquid medium comprising at least one species of photosynthetic organisms therein, and to methods of using the photobioreactor apparatus as part of a production process for forming an organic molecule-containing product, such as a polymeric material and/or fuel-grade oil (e.g. biodiesel), from biomass produced in the photobioreactor apparatus. In certain embodiments, the disclosed organic molecule/polymer production systems and methods, photobioreactor apparatus, methods of using such apparatus, and/or gas treatment systems and methods provided herein can be utilized as part of an integrated combustion and polymer and/or fuel-grade oil (e.g. biodiesel) production method and system, wherein photosynthetic organisms utilized within the photobioreactor are used to at least partially remove certain pollutant compounds contained within combustion gases, e.g. CO2 and/or NOx, and are subsequently harvested from the photobioreactor, processed, and utilized as a source for generating polymers and/or organic molecule-containing products (e.g. fuel-grade oil (e.g. biodiesel)) and/or as a fuel source for a combustion device (e.g. an electric power plant generator and/or incinerator).

Integrated photobioreactor-based pollution mitigation and oil extraction processes and systems

Integrated systems including a photobioreactor system designed to contain a liquid medium comprising at least one species of phototrophic organism therein, and a facility associated with extracting and / or processing oil extracted from mixtures of oil and solid material, such as an oil sands facility, are described. Processes for using a photobioreactor system as part of a gas-treatment process and system able to at least partially remove certain undesirable pollutants from a byproduct gas stream produced by an oil sands facility are also described. Examples of such pollutants that may be removed include compounds contained within combustion gases, e.g., CO2 and / or NOx. These pollutants processed with the photobioreactor system, and, in some embodiments, biomass produced with the photobioreactor system may be utilized to produce a fuel source (e.g., biodiesel) and cutting stock for further operation of or use in the oil sands facility. Such uses of certain embodiments can provide an efficient means for recycling carbon, thereby reducing CO2 emissions, fuel, and / or cutting stock requirements for a given quantum of energy produced. In addition, in some cases the photobioreactor can be integrated with a holding pond and waste heat from the oil extraction process can be used to maintain the photobioreactor temperature and / or provide energy for other processes. Accordingly, embodiments described herein can improve the overall environmental and economic profile of the oil sands facility.
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