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14715 results about "Carbon dioxide" patented technology

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (410 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Carbon dioxide is odorless at normally encountered concentrations, but at high concentrations, it has a sharp and acidic odor.

System for combined transcutaneous blood gas monitoring and vacuum assisted wound closure

A method and apparatus for the transcutaneous monitoring of blood gases generally comprises a blood gas data acquisition device, a vacuum source and a blood gas transducer unit. The blood gas transducer unit is adapted for application to a patient's skin and administration of a local vacuum at the area of patient application. It further comprises an electrochemical blood gas transducer, well known to those of ordinary skill in the art, which is disposed entirely within the local vacuum at the area of patient application. The vacuum source is placed in fluid communication with the blood gas transducer unit, through a hydrophobic membrane filter for safety purposes, in order to induce a condition of hyperperfusion in the locality of the electrochemical blood gas transducer. Under the control of a microcontroller, or equivalent means, the blood gas acquisition device is then utilized to capture a measure of skin surface oxygen or carbon dioxide pressure. The microcontroller can then utilize this measure to arrive at an estimate of arterial partial pressure of oxygen or carbon dioxide, accordingly. Because vacuum induced perfusion produces the requisite condition of hyperperfusion without local heating and, therefore, without acceleration of the local metabolic function, the present invention results in more accurate than previously available estimates of partial pressure blood gas pressures and does so while eliminating a significant risk for injury to the patient.

Zero emission gasification, power generation, carbon oxides management and metallurgical reduction processes, apparatus, systems, and integration thereof

ActiveUS7674443B1Improvement in individual technology componentEnhances economic performanceUsing liquid separation agentBiofuelsCyclonic separationOxygen
A system involving a two-step gasification of a carbonaceous source to produce bulk hydrogen that avoids the early formation of CO2 and obviates the traditional water gas shift (WGSR) step, carbochlorination of a metallic ore the production of metals found in the ore that utilizes carbon monoxide as an oxygen sink, rather than the traditional coke, and carbon oxides management that eliminates major impediments to emission-neutral power generation and the reduction of major metals. The gasification uses a rotary kiln reactor and gas-gas cyclonic separation process to separate synthesis gas into purified hydrogen and purified carbon monoxide. Purified bulk carbon monoxide issued in metallurgical reduction, and purified bulk hydrogen as fuel for an emission-neutral hydrogen combined cycle (HCC) turbine power generation station. The carbochlorination is integrated with: a) the concurrent separation and purification of all metal-chlorides (metchlors) and capture of CO2 for passage to the carbon oxides management system; b) the direct reduction of metchlors to nanoscale metallurgical powders and/or to dendritically-shaped particles, including metchlor reduction for the ultrahigh-performance semiconductor metals of the III-V group; and, c) the reforming of metal-oxides with improved crystalline structure from metchlors. The carbon oxides management collects, stores and directs to points of usage, carbon oxides that arise in various processes of the integrated system, and captures carbon monoxide for process enhancement and economic uses and captures carbon dioxide as a process intermediate and for economic uses.
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