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4039results about "Ultrafiltration" patented technology

Filtration monitoring and control system

PCT No. PCT/AU96/00144 Sec. 371 Date Jan. 12, 1998 Sec. 102(e) Date Jan. 12, 1998 PCT Filed Mar. 15, 1996 PCT Pub. No. WO96/28236 PCT Pub. Date Sep. 19, 1996A method and apparatus for determining the fouling effect of a feedstream on a filter having known characteristics disclosed. The method comprises passing the feedstream through a filter (5) having known characteristics; determining the change in resistance to flow of the feedstream across the filter, either continuously or over a number of time intervals and from this data, calculating a feed fouling index (FFI) representative of the fouling characteristics of the feedstream with respect to the filter. A method and apparatus for monitoring the operation of a filtration system is also disclosed the method comprising sampling system parameter values at selected locations within the filtration system at a predetermined sampling rate; generating a parameter profile characteristic from the sampled parameter values at predetermined intervals of time; and analysing the parameter profile characteristic to determine correct operation of the filtration system. A further method and apparatus of monitoring and controlling a filtering system based on backwash efficiency is also disclosed, the method comprising determining resistance values of filtering elements used in the filtering system at predetermined times during the backwash cycle of the system by monitoring a number of operating parameters of the system; calculating a backwash efficiency value representative of the efficiency of the backwash cycle of the filtering system using the resistance values determined; and controlling the operation of the filtering system in dependence on the value of the backwash efficiency calculated.

Methods, compositions, and automated systems for separating rare cells from fluid samples

The present invention recognizes that diagnosis and prognosis of many conditions can depend on the enrichment of rare cells from a complex fluid sample. In particular, the enrichment of fetal cells from maternal samples, such as maternal blood samples, can greatly aid in the detection of fetal abnormalities or a variety of genetic conditions. In addition, the present invention recognizes that the enrichment of rare malignant cells from patient samples, can aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and development of therapeutic modalities for patients. The invention includes microfabricated filters for filtering fluid samples and methods of enriching rare cells of fluid samples using microfabricated filters of the present invention. The invention also includes solutions for the selective sedimentation of red blood cells (RBCs) from a blood sample and methods of using selective RBC sedimentation solutions for enriching rare cells of a fluid sample. Yet another aspect of the invention is an automated system for processing a fluid sample that includes: at least one filtration chamber that includes a microfabricated filter; automated means for directing fluid flow through at least one filtration chamber of the automated system, and means for collecting enriched rare cells. The present invention also includes methods of using automated systems for separating rare cells from fluid samples. Preferred fluid samples are blood, effusion, or urine samples, and rare cells that can be enriched from such sample include nucleated red blood cells and cancer cells.

Vertical skein of hollow fiber membranes and method of maintaining clean fiber surfaces while filtering a substrate to withdraw a permeate

A vertical skein of "fibers", opposed terminal portions of which are held in headers unconfined in a modular shell, is aerated with a gas-distribution means which produces a mass of bubbles serving the function of a scrub-brash for the outer surfaces of the fibers. The membrane device is surprisingly effective with relatively little cleansing gas, the specific flux through the membranes reaching an essentially constant relatively high value because the vertical deployment of fibers allows bubbles to rise upwards along the outer surfaces of the fibers. Further, bubbles flowing along the outer surfaces of the fibers make the fibers surprisingly resistant to being fouled by build-up of deposits of inanimate particles or microorganisms in the substrate provided that the length of each fiber is only slightly greater than the direct center-to-center distance between opposed faces of the headers, preferably in the range from at least 0.1% to about 5% greater. For use in a large reservoir, a bank of skeins is used with a gas distributor means and each skein has fibers preferably >0.5 meter long, which together provide a surface area >10 m2. The terminal end portions of fibers in each header are kept free from fiber-to-fiber contact with a novel method of potting fibers.
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