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70887 results about "Nutrient" patented technology

A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce. The requirement for dietary nutrient intake applies to animals, plants, fungi, and protists. Nutrients can be incorporated into cells for metabolic purposes or excreted by cells to create non-cellular structures, such as hair, scales, feathers, or exoskeletons. Some nutrients can be metabolically converted to smaller molecules in the process of releasing energy, such as for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and fermentation products (ethanol or vinegar), leading to end-products of water and carbon dioxide. All organisms require water. Essential nutrients for animals are the energy sources, some of the amino acids that are combined to create proteins, a subset of fatty acids, vitamins and certain minerals. Plants require more diverse minerals absorbed through roots, plus carbon dioxide and oxygen absorbed through leaves. Fungi live on dead or living organic matter and meet nutrient needs from their host.

Autogenic living scaffolds and living tissue matrices: methods and uses thereof

ActiveUS20050226856A1Preventing host rejectionThicker and strongBiocideSkin implantsTransdifferentiationOrganism
A 3-dimensional structure comprising suitable cells (or entities) and the ECM (or matrix) that has been completely produced and arranged by these cells (or entities) that promotes the differentiation, dedifferentiation and/or transdifferentiation of cells and/or formation of tissue in vitro and in vivo, while at the same time promoting cell growth, proliferation, migration, acquisition of in vivo-like morphology, or combinations thereof, and that 1. provides structural and/or nutritional support to cells, tissue, organs, or combinations thereof, termed an “Autogenic Living Scaffold” (ALS); or 2. is capable of being transformed into a more complex tissue (or matrix) or a completely different type of tissue (or matrix), termed a “Living Tissue Matrix” (LTM). Autogenic means it is self-produced. The living cells that produce the LTM or ALS, or are added to Autogenic Living Scaffolds, may be genetically engineered or otherwise modified. The matrix component of the ALS or LTM provides a structural framework for cells that guide their direction of growth, enables them to be correctly spaced, prevents overcrowding, enables cells to communicate between each other, transmit subtle biological signals, receive signals from their environment, form bonds and contacts that are required for proper functioning of all cells within a unit such as a tissue, or combinations thereof. The ALS or LTM may thus provide proper or supporting mechanical and chemical environments, signals, or stimuli to other cells, to the cells that produce the ALS, to surrounding tissue at an implantation site, to a wound, for in vitro and ex vivo generation and regeneration of cells, tissue and organs, or combinations thereof. They may also provide other cells with nutrients, growth factors, and/or other necessary or useful components. They may also take in or serve as buffers for certain substances in the environment, and have also some potential at adapting to new environments.

Apparatus and methods for simultaneous operation of miniaturized reactors

The present invention provides a variety of microscale bioreactors (microfermentors) and microscale bioreactor arrays for use in culturing cells. The microfermentors include a vessel for culturing cells and means for providing oxygen to the interior of the vessel at a concentration sufficient to support cell growth, e.g., growth of bacterial cells. Depending on the embodiment, the microfermentor vessel may have various interior volumes less than approximately 1 ml. The microfermentors may include an aeration membrane and optionally a variety of sensing devices. The invention further provides a chamber to contain the microfermentors and microfermentor arrays and to provide environmental control. Certain of the microfermentors include a second chamber that may be used, e.g., to provide oxygen, nutrients, pH control, etc., to the culture vessel and/or to remove metabolites, etc. Various methods of using the microfermentors, e.g., to select optimum cell strains or bioprocess parameters are provided. The invention provides microreactors having a variety of different designs, some of which incorporate active stirring and/or have the capability to operate in batch or fed-batch mode. The invention further provides an apparatus and methods for simultaneous operation of a plurality of microreactors, with monitoring of the individual microreactors during a run. The invention further provides methods of performing gene expression analysis on cells cultured in microreactors.
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