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17520results about How to "Reduce stress" patented technology

Electro-optic window incorporating a discrete photovoltaic device and apparatus for making same

An electro-optic window is provided which is powered solely by at least one discrete photovoltaic cell within an electro-optic window. The electro-optic window has front and back spaced-apart glass elements sealably bonded together in a spaced-apart relationship and defining a chamber filled with an electro-optic material. The front glass element has a transparent conductive layer on the face of the front glass element confronting the rear glass element and the rear glass element has a transparent conductive layer on the face confronting the front glass element. The seal is generally disposed along the perimeter of three edges of both glass elements and some distance in from the remaining (fourth) edge. The photovoltaic assembly is electrically connected to the two transparent conductive layers and is placed on the outer perimeter along this fourth edge with the photon-absorbing side of all the photovoltaic cells within the photovoltaic assembly facing in one direction ("out" the window). When light impinges on the photovoltaic cell a current is created which darkens the electro-optic material in proportion to the amount of impinging light. By choosing the relative area of the photovoltaic assembly to produce the correct current for the electro-optically active window area, the darkening of the electro-optic portion can be directly and accurately controlled without the need for any circuit, wires or shorting resistors. In addition, an apparatus for making an electro-optic window having two members capable of securing and holding two glass elements in a spaced-apart and parallel relationship is provided. The glass elements may be secured by vacuum-applying members or simple clips. The glass elements may be held in a spaced-apart and parallel relationship by a hydraulic mechanism or by simple spacers placed between the securing members.

Plating apparatus and method

An apparatus for plating a conductive film directly on a substrate with a barrier layer on top includes anode rod (1) placed in tube (109), and anode rings (2), and (3) placed between cylindrical walls (107) and (105), (103) and (101), respectively. Anodes (1), (2), and (3) are powered by power supplies (13), (12), and (11), respectively. Electrolyte (34) is pumped by pump (33) to pass through filter (32) and reach inlets of liquid mass flow controllers (LMFCs) (21), (22), and (23). Then LMFCs (21), (22) and (23) deliver electrolyte at a set flow rate to sub-plating baths containing anodes (3), (2) and (1), respectively. After flowing through the gap between wafer (31) and the top of the cylindrical walls (101), (103), (105), (107) and (109), electrolyte flows back to tank (36) through spaces between cylindrical walls (100) and (101), (103) and (105), and (107) and (109), respectively. A pressure leak valve (38) is placed between the outlet of pump (33) and electrolyte tank (36) to leak electrolyte back to tank (36) when LMFCs (21), (22), (23) are closed. A wafer (31) held by wafer chuck (29) is connected to power supplies (11), (12) and (13). A drive mechanism (30) is used to rotate wafer (31) around the z axis, and oscillate the wafer in the x, y, and z directions shown. Filter (32) filters particles larger than 0.1 or 0.2 mum in order to obtain a low particle added plating process.

Pressure measurement device

A device measures pressures in animals and humans and includes a pressure transmission catheter (PTC) filled with a pressure transmitting medium and implantable in an area in having a physiological pressure. A transducer communicates with the pressure transmitting medium to provide a pressure signal representing variations in the physiologic pressure on electrical wires. A connecting catheter carries the electrical wires to signal processing and telemetry circuitry, which transmits a telemetry signal representing the pressure signal to a receiver external to the animal or human. A housing holds the signal processing and telemetry circuitry, but the transducer is remote from the housing. The device is particularly useful in measuring venous pressure, pulmonary pressure, bladder pressure, or intracranial pressure without significant head pressure artifact and with a sufficient dynamic response. One embodiment of the PTC includes a multi-durometer stem.
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