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1528 results about "Partial oxidation" patented technology

Partial oxidation (POX) is a type of chemical reaction. It occurs when a substoichiometric fuel-air mixture is partially combusted in a reformer, creating a hydrogen-rich syngas which can then be put to further use, for example in a fuel cell. A distinction is made between thermal partial oxidation (TPOX) and catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX).

Method of preventing surface roughening during hydrogen pre-bake of SiGe substrates using chlorine containing gases

The invention forms an epitaxial silicon-containing layer on a silicon germanium, patterned strained silicon, or patterned thin silicon-on-insulator surface and avoids creating a rough surface upon which the epitaxial silicon-containing layer is grown. In order to avoid creating the rough surface, the invention first performs a hydrofluoric acid etching process on the silicon germanium, patterned strained silicon, or patterned thin silicon-on-insulator surface. This etching process removes most of oxide from the surface, and leaves only a sub-monolayer of oxygen (typically 1×1013-1×1015/cm2 of oxygen) at the silicon germanium, patterned strained silicon, or patterned thin silicon-on-insulator surface. The invention then performs a hydrogen pre-bake process in a chlorine containing environment which heats the silicon germanium, strained silicon, or thin silicon-on-insulator surface sufficiently to remove the remaining oxygen from the surface. By introducing a small amount of chlorine containing gases, the heating processes avoid changing the roughness of the silicon germanium, patterned strained silicon, or patterned thin silicon-on-insulator surface. Then the process of epitaxially growing the epitaxial silicon-containing layer on the silicon germanium, patterned strained silicon, or patterned silicon-on-insulator surface is performed.
Owner:IBM CORP

Exhaust gas treatment catalyst for internal combustion engines with two catalytically active layers on a carrier structure

A catalyst for treating the exhaust gas from internal combustion engines is provided, wherein the catalyst contains two catalytically active layers supported on a support. The first catalytically active layer contains a platinum group metal in close contact with all of the constituents of the first catalytically active layer, wherein the constituents of the first catalytically active layer include particulate aluminum oxide; particulate oxygen storage material, such as cerium oxide, cerium/zirconium and zirconium/cerium mixed oxides, and alkaline earth metal oxides. The second catalytically active layer, which is in direct contact with the exhaust gas, contains particulate aluminum oxide and at least one particulate oxygen storage material, such as cerium oxide, cerium/zirconium and zirconium/cerium mixed oxides. Rhodium is supported on part of the aluminum oxides in the second catalytically active layer or on the particulate oxygen storage material in the second catalytically active layer. By providing the platinum group metal in close contact with all of the constituents of the first catalytically active layer, improved conversion efficiency of the impurities in the exhaust gas can be achieved.
Owner:UMICORE AG & CO KG +1

Catalytic oxidation process

A process for the partial catalytic oxidation of a hydrocarbon containing feed comprising contacting the feed with an oxygen-containing gas in the presence of a catalyst retained within a reaction zone in a fixed arrangement, wherein the catalyst comprises at least one catalytically active metal selected from the group consisting of silver and Group VIII elements supported on a porous ceramic carrier. The porous ceramic carrier has a distribution of total pores wherein about 70% of the total pores (1) have a volume-to-surface area (V/S) ration that is within about 20% of the mean V/S value for the total pores and no pores have a V/S ration that is greater than twice the mean V/S value for the total pores; (2) have a pore-to-pore distance between neighboring pores that is within about 25% of the mean pore-to-pore distance between neighboring pores; and (3) have a pore throat area that is within about 50% of the mean pore throat are for the pores. Additionally, about 50% of the total pores have a coordination number between neighboring pores that is within about 25% of the mean coordination number between neighboring pores. Preferably, the oxidation process comprises a multistage, staged oxygen, catalytic partial oxidation process having fewer than or equal to about five stages and including a first stage preheat temperature of greater than about 550° C., and wherein the temperature of the product mixture in each stage following the first stage is at least about 700° C.
Owner:EXXON RES & ENG CO

Photoelectrochemical determination of chemical oxygen demand

A photoelectrochemical assay apparatus for determining chemical oxygen demand (COD) of a water sample which consists of a) a measuring cell for holding a sample to be analysed b) a titanium dioxide nanoparticle photoelectric working electrode and a counter electrode disposed in said cell, c) a UV light source adapted to illuminate the photoelectric working electrode d) control means to control the illumination of the working electrode e) potential measuring means to measure the electrical potential at the working and counter electrodes f) analysis means to derive a measure of oxygen demand from the measurements made by the potential measuring means. The method of determining chemical oxygen demand of a water sample, comprises the steps of a) applying a constant potential bias to a photoelectrochemical cell, containing a supporting electrolyte solution; b) illuminating the working electrode with a UV light source and recording the background photocurrent produced at the working electrode from the supporting electrolyte solution; c) adding a water sample, to be analysed, to the photoelectrochemical cell; d) illuminating the working electrode with a UV light source and recording the total photocurrent produced; e) determining the chemical oxygen demand of the water sample according to the type of degradation conditions employed. The determination may be under exhaustive degradation conditions, in which all organics present in the water sample are oxidised or under non-exhaustive degradation conditions, in which the organics present in the water sample are partially oxidised.
Owner:579453 ONTARIO INC

Hydrogenating and pour point depressing catalyst and its preparing method

The invention discloses a hydro dewaxing catalyst and the preparation method. In the method, compound with hydrogen active component is mixed with aluminum dry gel to prepare adhesive; and then the adhesive is mixed with shape-selective cracked zeolite and is pinched in shape; after drying and roasting, catalyst carrier is yielded; then the catalyst carrier is impregnated in the impregnating solution containing the rest active component and promoter; and after drying and roasting again, the catalyst of the invention is yielded. The invention is capable of taking full advantage of the alumina used as adhesive in the catalyst carrier under low hydrogen active component content conditions to prepare adhesive containing all the molybdenum and tungsten and part of the nickel, thereby keeping a certain amount of nickel oxide in the zeolite. The rest of the active metal component is distributed in the alumina, keeping the zeolite passage unobstructed with good hydro dewaxing effect and effectively improving the hydrogen addition and purification performance of the catalyst. The catalyst is especially suitable for hydro dewaxing of raw material containing wax and with high nitrogen impurity content and suitable for hydrogen addition and purification.
Owner:CHINA PETROLEUM & CHEM CORP +1

Device and method for flame stabilization in a burner

A device and a method for flame stabilization in a burner (10), includes a burner housing at least partially enclosing a burner volume, into which may be introduced via at least one fuel line, fuel, and via at least one air feed means, air, forming an air / fuel mixture spreading in a preferred flow direction, which may be ignited in a combustion chamber (11) connecting downstream of the burner housing to form a stationary flame (13). Upstream of the flame (13), a catalyst arrangement (1) is provided through which an air / pilot fuel mixture (4), separate from the air / fuel mixture, is flowable. The catalyst arrangement (1) has at least two catalyst stages which are located one behind the other in the through-flow direction, of which the catalyst stage (3) located upstream, the so-called POX-catalyst, is flow-washable by the air / pilot fuel mixture (4) with an air / pilot fuel mixture ratio λ<1, by which catalyst stage (3) the air / pilot fuel mixture (4) is partially oxidized, and of which catalyst stages the downstream catalyst stage (8), the so-called FOX-catalyst, is flow-washable by a leaned air / pilot fuel mixture (7) with a mixture ratio λ>1, by which the leaned air / pilot fuel mixture is completely oxidized forming an inert hot gas flow (9).
Owner:ALSTOM TECH LTD
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