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55results about How to "Eliminate and reduce number" patented technology

Telephone-linked commodity-billing method

A method for billing consumers of on-demand commodities consumed at a site remote from the site at which they are produced. It is modeled after certain contemporary telephone-company billing practices, though it is not limited to use with telephone companies. In one embodiment the method uses a telephone service provider to bill and collect for monies owed to the producer of the commodity for the amount of the full commodity units consumed during a billing period. In a simple embodiment of the method, commodity-consumption information is sent to the billing service by an automatically reading meter located at the point where the commodity is delivered for consumption. In particular, this commodity meter-such as an electric power meter-is designed to generate a discrete signal each time that a predetermined commodity-billing-unit has been consumed. Further in this particular embodiment, a coupling device for coupling the meter to the telephone line of the consumer is designed to receive this discrete signal and, each time that it does, to call a predetermined telephone number. The coupling device then disconnects the telephone connection immediately upon receiving verification of a telephone connection, without the transfer of any data. In that manner, the billing facility at the telephone is able to record that the particular customer identified by the number from which the call came had consumed one more billing-cost-unit of the commodity. This information is then utilized by the accounting computer at the telephone company to generate a line item or a billing section on the next telephone bill sent to that particular customer, a line item or a billing section corresponding to the cost of the commodity in question consumed by that customer during the billing period.

Gradient liquid chromatography enhancement system

An isocratic gradient profile is inserted into a gradient profile during a flash chromatographic run when TLC indicates that it will be difficult to separate the component being purified from its closest impurity by a gradient. TLC is utilized to determine at least two retention factors with two significantly different solvent strengths for the same solvent system. The two or more retention factors are used to determine a solvent strength in which the retention factor of a target component and the retention factor of a closest impurity are within 0.8 of each other. The isocratic gradient profile is started when this solvent strength is reached during the gradient chromatographic run. It is ended when the earlier of four events occurs, which are: (1) the end of a second peak if a first peak is detected at an isocratic-gradient profile starting-solvent strength or within a predetermined starting tolerance of the isocratic-gradient profile starting-solvent strength detection; (2) the end of the first peak after the starting tolerance; (3) the detection of a peak during the isocratic gradient profile or isocratic segment run after the regular isocratic time period; or (4) an operator initiated termination of the isocratic gradient profile or isocratic segment run. The gradient profile then resumes and continues to the end of the run.
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