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Applications for a wireless location gateway

A location system is disclosed for commercial wireless telecommunication infrastructures. The system is an end-to-end solution having one or more location centers for outputting requested locations of commercially available handsets or mobile stations (MS) based on, e.g., CDMA, AMPS, NAMPS or TDMA communication standards, for processing both local MS location requests and more global MS location requests via, e.g., Internet communication between a distributed network of location centers. The system uses a plurality of MS locating technologies including those based on: (1) two-way TOA and TDOA; (2) pattern recognition; (3) distributed antenna provisioning; (5) GPS signals, (6) angle of arrival, (7) super resolution enhancements, and (8) supplemental information from various types of very low cost non-infrastructure base stations for communicating via a typical commercial wireless base station infrastructure or a public telephone switching network. Accordingly, the traditional MS location difficulties, such as multipath, poor location accuracy and poor coverage are alleviated via such technologies in combination with strategies for: (a) automatically adapting and calibrating system performance according to environmental and geographical changes; (b) automatically capturing location signal data for continual enhancement of a self-maintaining historical data base retaining predictive location signal data; (c) evaluating MS locations according to both heuristics and constraints related to, e.g., terrain, MS velocity and MS path extrapolation from tracking and (d) adjusting likely MS locations adaptively and statistically so that the system becomes progressively more comprehensive and accurate. Further, the system can be modularly configured for use in location signaling environments ranging from urban, dense urban, suburban, rural, mountain to low traffic or isolated roadways. Accordingly, the system is useful for 911 emergency calls, tracking, routing, people and animal location including applications for confinement to and exclusion from certain areas.

Method and apparatus for non-invasive blood constituent monitoring

A system for determining a biologic constituent including hematocrit transcutaneously, noninvasively and continuously. A finger clip assembly includes including at least a pair of emitters and a photodiode in appropriate alignment to enable operation in either a transmissive mode or a reflectance mode. At least one predetermined wavelength of light is passed onto or through body tissues such as a finger, earlobe, or scalp, etc. and attenuation of light at that wavelength is detected. Likewise, the change in blood flow is determined by various techniques including optical, pressure, piezo and strain gage methods. Mathematical manipulation of the detected values compensates for the effects of body tissue and fluid and determines the hematocrit value. If an additional wavelength of light is used which attenuates light substantially differently by oxyhemoglobin and reduced hemoglobin, then the blood oxygen saturation value, independent of hematocrit may be determined. Further, if an additional wavelength of light is used which greatly attenuates light due to bilirubin (440 nm) or glucose (1060 nm), then the bilirubin or glucose value may also be determined. Also how to determine the hematocrit with a two step DC analysis technique is provided. Then a pulse wave is not required, so this method may be utilized in states of low blood pressure or low blood flow.

Task distribution processing system and the method for subscribing computers to perform computing tasks during idle time

A computer executable "aggregate" task is processed by dividing it into subtasks and distributing the subtasks "on demand" to remotely located subscribing computers via a computer network. The aggregate task originates at a coordinating computer, coupled to one or more peripheral computers by appropriate communications links. The coordinating computer divides the aggregate task into multiple independent subtasks. Each peripheral computer begins to "subscribe" to the coordinating computer's aggregate task by obtaining an "idle time activation program" from the coordinating computer, and then installing the program locally. The idle time activation program which may include a screen saver, activates automatically when the subscribing computer is inactive. Continuing the subscription process, each peripheral computer requests a subtask from the coordinating computer. In response, the coordinating computer distributes different subtasks among the subscribing computers, completing the subscription process. The subscribing computers automatically work on their respective subtasks whenever they are idle, as directed by the local idle time activation program. When a subscribing computer completes its subtask, it transmits results back to the coordinating computer. When results of all subtasks have been received from subscribing computers, the coordinating computer compiles and stores these results, concluding the aggregate task.

Optically similar reference samples and related methods for multivariate calibration models used in optical spectroscopy

Systems and methods for establishing and/or maintaining the prediction capability over time of a multivariate calibration model designed for quantitative optical spectroscopic measurement of attributes or analytes in bodily tissues, bodily fluids or other biological samples, which are particularly useful when the spectral absorbance of the attribute or analyte is small relative to the background. The present invention provides an optically similar reference sample to capture the characteristics of instrument and environmental variation and to reduce the effect of such variation on the measurement capability of the model. The optically similar reference is preferably stable over time and is designed such that its optical properties are sufficiently matched to the sample of interest that instrument and environmental variations are captured in the same manner in both the test sample of interest and the optically similar reference sample. The optically similar reference sample may include one or more physical components which are spectroscopically measured in a manner which closely mimics the spectroscopic measurement of the test sample of interest. Spectral similarity may also be achieved by using alternative components with spectral characteristics similar to the components contained in the test sample of interest.

Internet directory system and method using telephone number based addressing

An Internet directory system and method that is based on user telephone number addressing. The system includes an interactive white and yellow pages directory that is based on telephone numbers. Thus, a user's telephone number is a unique identifier used to key other information within the directory. The telephone number may also be used as the primary component of an email address, domain name, or web site URL for the user. The use of a telephone number as the primary component of an e-mail address or domain name greatly simplifies the process of locating a user. E-mail addresses and domain names may be readily found using standard telephone information services, such as "411", as well as other telephone-based methods for obtaining telephone directory information. This Internet directory system and method brings all communication methods and directory services together using one searchable key, a user's telephone number. The directory entry page may be created, edited and updated by the subscriber using simple html editing or using a voice telephone call or via fax, without the use of a personal computer. Thus, the present invention provides an open directory model wherein the end users construct the directory, and the directory is "living", i.e., dynamically changeable and updateable. The power of the directory is thus placed in the users' hands. The telephone based Internet directory system of the present invention also provides addressing for unified messaging as well as locality in addressing.
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