The invention belongs to the technical field of preparing the surface of a composite structure, and in particular relates to a method for preparing super-hydrophobic antireflective silicon surface with a micron and nanometer composite structure. The method comprises the following steps: cleaning a silicon chip; preparing a micron-level silicon island and a gridding structure on the surface of the silicon chip; carrying out catalytic etching taking silver or aurum nanoparticles as blockage; obtaining the surface of the micron and nanometer composite structure; and carrying out chemical modification of the surface of the composite structure. A static contact angle between the super-hydrophobic antireflective material surface prepared by the method and water is more than 150 degrees, and a static rolling angle of water is less than 3 degrees. The surface has superior antireflective performance, and in particular, the light reflectivity within the wavelength range between 800 and 1,100 nm is less than 3 percent. With application of the method, the super-hydrophobic antireflective silicon surface of the micron and nanometer composite structure can be produced on scale, can be widely applied to a solar cell, a microfluidic chip, a photoelectric device, and the like, and has good industrial application prospect.