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15818 results about "Surface layer" patented technology

The surface layer is the layer of a turbulent fluid most affected by interaction with a solid surface or the surface separating a gas and a liquid where the characteristics of the turbulence depend on distance from the interface. Surface layers are characterized by large normal gradients of tangential velocity and large concentration gradients of any substances (temperature, moisture, sediments et cetera) transported to or from the interface.

Time-temperature indicator device and method of manufacture

A time-temperature indicator label for measuring the length of time to which a product has been exposed to a temperature above a pre-determined temperature is provided. The period of time of exposure is integrated with the temperature to which the indicator is exposed. The label is a composite of a plurality of layers adapted to be adhered at its underside to a product container. The label includes a printable surface layer, a longitudinal wicking strip that is adhered underneath the surface layer substantially at the opposite extremities only of the wicking strip and a lower substrate layer forming an envelope with said surface layer. A heat-fusible substance, which melts and flows above a pre-determined temperature, is applied on the surface of the wicking strip contiguous to at least one of the ends of the wicking member. When the heat-fusible substance is exposed to a temperature above the pre-determined temperature, the heat-fusible substance flows along the length of the wicking member. The label has a printable surface layer and is sealed at its peripheral edge to the peripheral edge of the substrate layer. These layers encapsulate the wicking member and the heat-fusible substance. The surface layer is provided with a sight window at an intermediate location over the wicking member through which the progress of flow on the wicking member is observed.

GaN group semiconductor light-emitting element with concave and convex structures on the substrate and a production method thereof

Concaves and convexes 1a are formed by processing the surface layer of a first layer 1, and second layer 2 having a different refractive index from the first layer is grown while burying the concaves and convexes (or first crystal 10 is grown as concaves and convexes on crystal layer S to be the base of the growth, and second crystal 20 is grown, which has a different refractive index from the first crystal). After forming these concavo-convex refractive index interfaces 1a (10a), an element structure, wherein semiconductor crystal layers containing a light-emitting layer A are laminated, is formed. As a result, the light in the lateral direction, which is generated in the light-emitting layer changes its direction by an influence of the concavo-convex refractive index interface and heads toward the outside. Particularly, when an ultraviolet light is to be emitted using InGaN as a material of a light-emitting layer, a quantum well structure is employed and all the layers between the quantum well structure and the low temperature buffer layer are formed of a GaN crystal, removing AlGaN. The quantum well structure preferably consists of a well layer made of InGaN and a barrier layer made of GaN, and the thickness of the barrier layer is preferably 6 nm–30 nm.

Water permeable brick and preparation method thereof

The invention discloses a water permeable brick and a preparation method thereof. The water permeable brick comprises two parts, namely a surface layer and a base layer, wherein the material of the surface layer is prepared from the following components in percentage by mass: 60-70% of ceramic sand, 15-20% of sand and 15-20% of cement, and in addition to the solid components with the sum of 100% in percentage by mass, water accounting for 50-60% by mass of cement is further added; and the material of the base layer is prepared from the following components in percentage by mass: 45-65% of building silt unburned ceramsite, 10-15% of cement, 5-10% of fly ash, 10-15% of melon seed-shaped drug slices and 10-15% of sand, and in addition to the solid components with the sum of 100% in percentage by mass, the water accounting for 30-40% and a water reducer accounting for 1-1.5% relative to total mass of the cement and the fly ash are further added. The water permeable brick disclosed by the invention is prepared by using the building silt unburned ceramsite to replace natural aggregate or calcined ceramsite, on one hand, the using ways of the building silt unburned ceramsite can be expanded, the utilization rate of solid wastes is improved, and negative effects on an environment are reduced, and on the other hand, the obtained water permeable brick has excellent performance.

Ultrasonic impact machining of body surfaces to correct defects and strengthen work surfaces

InactiveUS6932876B1Improve power transfer efficiencyEfficient transferMechanical vibrations separationFurnace typesUltrasonic sensorPeriodic oscillation
Metallic workpieces of diverse shapes having work surfaces which are deformed at the surface and adjacent sub-surface layers by surface impact from ultrasonic transducers employing freely axially moving impacting elements propelled and energized by a transducer oscillating surface vibrating periodically at an ultrasonic frequency. The impacting elements are propelled in a random aperiodic and controlled impact mode at different phases of the periodic oscillation cycles. The transducer may be portable and provides a series of mechanically interconnected stages having mechanical resonances harmonically related as a multiple of the primary ultrasonic frequency and have matched stage resistances under instantaneous loading when the impact elements are driven by the transducer oscillating surface into the surface of the workpiece. This mode of operation produces Q-factor amplification of the input ultrasonic power oscillator energy at the impact needles and high propulsion velocities making it possible to machine metallic workpiece bodies to greater depths for compressing the metal to increase compressive strength of the workpiece work surfaces to substantially the ultimate material strength. The impact machining is done at ambient temperatures.
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