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7258 results about "Crystal structure" patented technology

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material. Ordered structures occur from the intrinsic nature of the constituent particles to form symmetric patterns that repeat along the principal directions of three-dimensional space in matter.

Thin film write head with improved laminated flux carrying structure and method of fabrication

The present invention provides a thin film write head having an improved laminated flux carrying structure and method of fabrication. The preferred embodiment provides laminated layers of: high moment magnetic material, and easily aligned high resistivity magnetic material. In the preferred embodiment, the easily aligned laminating layer induces uniaxial anisotropy, by exchange coupling, to improve uniaxial anisotropy in the high moment material. This allows deposition induced uniaxial anisotropy by DC magnetron sputtering and also provides improved post deposition annealing, if desired. It is preferred to laminate FeXN, such as FeRhN, or other crystalline structure material, with an amorphous alloy material, preferably Co based, such as CoZrCr. In the preferred embodiment, upper and lower pole structures may both be laminated as discussed above. Such laminated structures have higher Bs than structures with insulative laminates, and yokes and pole tips and may be integrally formed, if desired, because flux may travel along or across the laminating layers. The preferred embodiment of the present invention improves soft magnetic properties, reduces eddy currents, improves hard axis alignment while not deleteriously affecting the coercivity, permeability, and magnetostriction of the structure, thus allowing for improved high frequency operation.

Zero emission gasification, power generation, carbon oxides management and metallurgical reduction processes, apparatus, systems, and integration thereof

ActiveUS7674443B1Improvement in individual technology componentEnhances economic performanceUsing liquid separation agentBiofuelsCyclonic separationOxygen
A system involving a two-step gasification of a carbonaceous source to produce bulk hydrogen that avoids the early formation of CO2 and obviates the traditional water gas shift (WGSR) step, carbochlorination of a metallic ore the production of metals found in the ore that utilizes carbon monoxide as an oxygen sink, rather than the traditional coke, and carbon oxides management that eliminates major impediments to emission-neutral power generation and the reduction of major metals. The gasification uses a rotary kiln reactor and gas-gas cyclonic separation process to separate synthesis gas into purified hydrogen and purified carbon monoxide. Purified bulk carbon monoxide issued in metallurgical reduction, and purified bulk hydrogen as fuel for an emission-neutral hydrogen combined cycle (HCC) turbine power generation station. The carbochlorination is integrated with: a) the concurrent separation and purification of all metal-chlorides (metchlors) and capture of CO2 for passage to the carbon oxides management system; b) the direct reduction of metchlors to nanoscale metallurgical powders and/or to dendritically-shaped particles, including metchlor reduction for the ultrahigh-performance semiconductor metals of the III-V group; and, c) the reforming of metal-oxides with improved crystalline structure from metchlors. The carbon oxides management collects, stores and directs to points of usage, carbon oxides that arise in various processes of the integrated system, and captures carbon monoxide for process enhancement and economic uses and captures carbon dioxide as a process intermediate and for economic uses.

Laminated magnetorestrictive element of an exchange coupling film, an antiferromagnetic film and a ferromagnetic film and a magnetic disk drive using same

A magnetoresistive element comprises an exchange coupling film having a under layer, an antiferromagnetic film and a ferromagnetic film, which are laminated in that order, the under layer including a metal having a face centered cubic crystal structure or hexagonal closest packing crystal structure which have a longer nearest neighbor atomic distance than that of the antiferromagnetic film. With this construction, it is possible to improve the exchange coupling field and to satisfy a stable output over a long period of time. A magnetoresistive element having a dual spin valve structure has a magnetization adjusting layer, which is antiferromagnetically connected to a pinned layer via an anti-parallel connection layer, to adjust the value of the product of the saturation magnetization of each of the magnetization adjusting layer and the pinned layer by the thickness thereof. Moreover, a magnetoresistance head use a giant magnetoresistance effect, and has at least one pair of pinned layer and free layer arranged via a non-magnetic spacer layer. The pinned layer has a pair of ferromagnetic layers which have different compositions and different coercive forces and which are antiferromagnetically connected to each other via a connection layer, so that the effective exchange coupling field of the pinned layer is 200 Oe or more.
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