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9294 results about "Electrochemistry" patented technology

Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa. These reactions involve electric charges moving between electrodes and an electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution). Thus electrochemistry deals with the interaction between electrical energy and chemical change.

Combined lancet and electrochemical analyte-testing apparatus

An apparatus for detection and quantitation of an electrochemically-detect- able analyte, such as glucose, in blood or interstitial fluid includes a meter unit, a lancet and an electrochemical sensor. Of these components, the meter is preferably reusable, while the lancet and the electrochemical sensor are preferably incorporated in assemblies intended for single-use. The meter unit has a housing, within which a lancet is engaged with a mechanism for moving then lancet; a connector disposed within the housing for engaging an electrochemical sensor specific for the analyte and transmitting a signal indicative of the amount of analyte, and a display operatively-associated with a connector for displaying the amount of the analyte to user. The electrochemical sensor is adapted for detection of a particular analyte. In addition, the electrochemical sensor has an absorptive member for uptake of a sample of blood or interstitial fluid. In one version, the lancet moves from a initial position to a piercing position in which skin of the user is pierced and optionally back to a retracted position. The electrochemical sensor is disposed such that the absorptive member takes up a sample from the pierced skin of the user when it is pierced by the lancet without movement of the apparatus. In an alternative version, the lancet is a hollow cannula through which blood or interstitial fluid is transported from the puncture site to an absorbent portion of the electrochemical sensor. In either version, the apparatus provides single-step operation in which sample acquisition and analysis occur as a result of the single action of pressing the apparatus against the users skin.

Method of treating biological materials with translating electrical fields and electrode polarity reversal

A method and apparatus are provided for treating biological cellular material with a treating agent using pulsed electrical fields provided by a waveform generator (12). The treatment method includes obtaining an electrode assembly which includes three or more parallel rows of individual electrodes (19). The electrode assembly is applied to a treatment area. Electrically conductive pathways are established between the electrodes (19) and the waveform generator (12) through an array switch (14). Successive electric fields are applied to the treatment area in the form of successive electric field waveforms from the waveform generator (12), through the array switch (14), to adjacent rows of electrodes (19), wherein each successive electric field has the same direction, and wherein polarities of rows of electrodes are reversed successively during the applying of the successive electric fields between adjacent successive rows of electrodes to the treatment area. As a result, the biological cellular material in the treatment area is treated with the treating agent unidirectionally with uniform electric fields with a minimization of the formation of deleterious electrochemistry products at the electrodes.

Terminal-phosphate-labeled nucleotides and methods of use

The present invention relates to improved methods of detecting a target using a labeled substrate or substrate analog. The methods comprise reacting the substrate or substrate analog in an enzyme-catalyzed reaction which produces a labeled moiety with independently detectable signal only when such substrate or substrate analog reacts. The present invention, in particular, describes methods of detecting a nucleic acid in a sample, based on the use of terminal-phosphate-labeled nucleotides as substrates for nucleic acid polymerases. The methods provided by this invention utilize a nucleoside polyphosphate, dideoxynucleoside polyphosphate, or deoxynucleoside polyphosphate analogue which has a colorimetric dye, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent moiety, a mass tag or an electrochemical tag attached to the terminal-phosphate. When a nucleic acid polymerase uses this analogue as a substrate, an enzyme-activatable label would be present on the inorganic polyphosphate by-product of phosphoryl transfer. Cleavage of the polyphosphate product of phosphoryl transfer via phosphatase leads to a detectable change in the label attached thereon. When the polymerase assay is performed in the presence of a phosphatase, there is provided a convenient method for real-time monitoring of DNA or RNA synthesis and detection of a target nucleic acid.
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