The invention discloses a precision damping component and a damping platform composed of the precision damping component, and the damping platform has damping function and positioning function along a Z direction. The precision damping component comprises a passive damping part, an active damping actuator and an external frame. The passive damping part is a piston rod with a structure of double cavities, an air pocket and a pressure cavity are respectively positioned in the two cavities, and the air pocket has larger longitudinal bracing power and lower rigidity, and can isolate the vibration of attenuation high frequency. The active damping actuator is a linear voice coil motor connected in parallel with the passive damping part, and applies acting force to a passive object according to the vibration condition and location information of the controlled object, so as to drive the controlled object to move to a designated position and compensate the vibration. The damping platform composed of at least three precision damping components has the functions of vibration damping with a plurality of degrees of freedom, accurately positioning along the Z direction, focusing and leveling. The precision damping component and the damping platform can be used in the apparatus with precision damping requirements such as mask aligners, ultra-precision numerically-controlled machine tools, biochip scanners and the like.