The invention relates to a visual recognition and positioning method for robot intelligent capture application. According to the method, an RGB-D scene image is collected, a supervised and trained deep convolutional neural network is utilized to recognize the category of a target contained in a color image and a corresponding position region, the pose state of the target is analyzed in combinationwith a deep image, pose information needed by a controller is obtained through coordinate transformation, and visual recognition and positioning are completed. Through the method, the double functions of recognition and positioning can be achieved just through a single visual sensor, the existing target detection process is simplified, and application cost is saved. Meanwhile, a deep convolutional neural network is adopted to obtain image features through learning, the method has high robustness on multiple kinds of environment interference such as target random placement, image viewing anglechanging and illumination background interference, and recognition and positioning accuracy under complicated working conditions is improved. Besides, through the positioning method, exact pose information can be further obtained on the basis of determining object spatial position distribution, and strategy planning of intelligent capture is promoted.