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3712 results about "Heterologous" patented technology

In cell biology and protein biochemistry, heterologous expression means that a protein is experimentally put into a cell that does not normally make (i.e., express) that protein. Heterologous (meaning 'derived from a different organism') refers to the fact that often the transferred protein was initially cloned from or derived from a different cell type or a different species from the recipient. Typically the protein itself is not transferred, but instead the 'correctly edited' genetic material coding for the protein (the complementary DNA or cDNA) is added to the recipient cell. The genetic material that is transferred typically must be within a format that encourages the recipient cell to express the cDNA as a protein (i.e., it is put in an expression vector). Methods for transferring foreign genetic material into a recipient cell include transfection and transduction. The choice of recipient cell type is often based on an experimental need to examine the protein's function in detail, and the most prevalent recipients, known as heterologous expression systems, are chosen usually because they are easy to transfer DNA into or because they allow for a simpler assessment of the protein's function.

Mixing and matching TC proteins for pest control

The subject invention relates to the surprising discovery that toxin complex (TC) proteins, obtainable from Xenorhabdus, Photorhabdus, and Paenibacillus, can be used interchangeably with each other. In particularly preferred embodiments of the subject invention, the toxicity of a “stand-alone” TC protein (from Photorhabdus, Xenorhabdus, or Paenibacillus, for example) is enhanced by one or more TC protein “potentiators” derived from a source organism of a different genus from which the toxin was derived. As one skilled in the art will recognize with the benefit of this disclosure, this has broad implications and expands the range of utility that individual types of TC proteins will now be recognized to have. Among the most important advantages is that one skilled in the art will now be able to use a single set of potentiators to enhance the activity of a stand-alone Xenorhabdus protein toxin as well as a stand-alone Photorhabdus protein toxin. (As one skilled in the art knows, Xenorhabdus toxin proteins tend to be more desirable for controlling lepidopterans while Photorhabdus toxin proteins tend to be more desirable for controlling coleopterans.) This reduces the number of genes, and transformation events, needed to be expressed by a transgenic plant to achieve effective control of a wider spectrum of target pests. Certain preferred combinations of heterologous TC proteins are also disclosed herein. Other objects, advantages, and features of the subject invention will be apparent to one skilled in the art having the benefit of the subject disclosure.
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