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34097 results about "Alternating current" patented technology

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.

Apparatus and method for creating, maintaining, and controlling a virtual electrode used for the ablation of tissue

The present invention provides an apparatus and a method for producing a virtual electrode within or upon a tissue to be treated with radio frequency alternating electric current, such tissues including but not limited to brain, liver, cardiac, prostate, breast, and vascular tissues and neoplasms. An apparatus in accordance with the present invention includes a source of super-cooled fluid for selectively providing super-cooled fluid to the target tissue to cause a temporary cessation of cellular or electrical activity, a supply of conductive or electrolytic fluid to be provided to the target tissue, and alternating current generator, and a processor for creating, maintaining, and controlling the ablation process by the interstitial or surficial delivery of the fluid to a tissue and the delivery of electric power to the tissue via the virtual electrode. A method in accord with the present invention includes delivering super-cooled fluid to the target tissue to cause a temporary cessation of cellular or electrical activity, evaluating whether the temporary cessation of cellular or electrical activity is the desired cessation of cellular or electrical activity, and if so, delivering a conductive fluid to the predetermined tissue ablation site for a predetermined time period, applying a predetermined power level of radio frequency current to the tissue, monitoring at least one of several parameters, and adjusting either the applied power and/or the fluid flow in response to the measured parameters.

LED array primary display light sources employing dynamically switchable bypass circuitry

The invention comprises use of Dynamically Switchable Bypass (DSB) elements in association with one or more Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in arrays for illumination circuits to provide rugged, reliable lighting. The DSBs are selected from Transient Voltage Suppressors, including Silicon, Metal Oxide Varistors, and Multi Layer Varistors as well as Zener Diodes. The DSBs are not used as circuit protecting devices, but rather as alternative paths for electric current to bypass failed LEDs. Bi-directional TVSs are used as alternative electric paths for circuits using Alternating Current (AC) and parallel LED arrays that light on both phases of AC. Zener Diodes are used in parallel to, but in the opposite polarity orientation to, one or more LEDs in DC or rectified AC circuits. The inventive paired DSB/LED elements overcomes the black-out problems of prior series LED illumination systems, making possible the use of robust LEDs in illumination systems where reliability, long life, low power consumption, low heat output, resistance to shock, vibration, and humidity, and self-diagnosis are important. The DSB elements have breakdown voltages slightly higher than the LED(s) they support, so that when an LED fails, the conduction through the DSB begins. Because the conduction voltage of the DSB so nearly matches the conduction voltage of the LED(s), the remainder of the circuit continues to function as normal. The system is self-diagnostic in that any LED failure presents itself as a dark LED rather than as a whole string of dark LEDs. DSBs may be used with incandescent bulbs.
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