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1450 results about "Control variable" patented technology

A control variable (or scientific constant) in scientific experimentation is an experimental element which is constant and unchanged throughout the course of the investigation. Control variables could strongly influence experimental results, were they not held constant during the experiment in order to test the relative relationship of the dependent and independent variables. The control variables themselves are not of primary interest to the experimenter.

Method and apparatus of a self-configured, model-based adaptive, predictive controller for multi-zone regulation systems

A control system simultaneously controls a multi-zone process with a self-adaptive model predictive controller (MPC), such as temperature control within a plastic injection molding system. The controller is initialized with basic system information. A pre-identification procedure determines a suggested system sampling rate, delays or “dead times” for each zone and initial system model matrix coefficients necessary for operation of the control predictions. The recursive least squares based system model update, control variable predictions and calculations of the control horizon values are preferably executed in real time by using matrix calculation basic functions implemented and optimized for being used in a S7 environment by a Siemens PLC. The number of predictions and the horizon of the control steps required to achieve the setpoint are significantly high to achieve smooth and robust control. Several matrix calculations, including an inverse matrix procedure performed at each sample pulse and for each individual zone determine the MPC gain matrices needed to bring the system with minimum control effort and variations to the final setpoint. Corrective signals, based on the predictive model and the minimization criteria explained above, are issued to adjust system heating/cooling outputs at the next sample time occurrence, so as to bring the system to the desired set point. The process is repeated continuously at each sample pulse.

Optimized control of power plants having air cooled condensers

An optimization and control system for a utility plant that uses fan based air cooled condensers controls the operation of the power generation system at the plant in conjunction with the operation of the air cooled condensers so as to run the power plant at an optimum operating point associated with minimizing or reducing the cost of each kilowatt-hour of energy or other useful energy produced by the plant. The optimization and control system includes an optimizer having a numerical solver that determines values for a set of control variables associated with an optimal operating point of the plant and an expert system that oversees and modifies the control variable settings prior to providing these settings to a plant controller. The numerical solver uses an objective function and one or more models of plant equipment to determine the operating point of the plant that minimizes the cost per unit of useful energy generated by the plant. As part of determining the optimal plant operating point, the numerical solver may determine the number of fans to run within the air cooled condensers of the plant and/or the speed of the fans to use in the air cooled condensers in conjunction with the amount of fuel to burn in the boiler, the desired temperature of the steam at the input of the steam turbine, etc., all required to produce a given amount of power (load demand) at the particular environmental conditions currently experienced at the plant. The expert system may modify these outputs by determining which fans to actually use at any particular time based on, for example, the availability of or the operational status of the fans, the wear of the fans and fan motors, etc.

Premixed charge compression ignition engine with optimal combustion control

A premixed charge compression ignition engine, and a control system, is provided which effectively initiates combustion by compression ignition and maintains stable combustion while achieving extremely low nitrous oxide emissions, good overall efficiency and acceptable combustion noise and cylinder pressures. The present engine and control system effectively controls the combustion history, that is, the time at which combustion occurs, the rate of combustion, the duration of combustion and/or the completeness of combustion, by controlling the operation of certain control variables providing temperature control, pressure control, control of the mixture's autoignition properties and equivalence ratio control. The combustion control system provides active feedback control of the combustion event and includes a sensor, e.g. pressure sensor, for detecting an engine operating condition indicative of the combustion history, e.g. the start of combustion, and generating an associated engine operating condition signal. A processor receives the signal and generates control signals based on the engine operating condition signal for controlling various engine components to control the temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and/or autoignition properties so as to variably control the combustion history of future combustion events to achieve stable, low emission combustion in each cylinder and combustion balancing between the cylinders.

Method and system for communicating with and tracking RFID transponders

An RFID system and method for communicating between a host computer, one or more interrogators connected to the host computer, and a large body of transponders distributed within an area covered by the interrogators. Each transponder originally has a common identification code, and upon initialization by the host computer internally generates a unique identification code based upon an internally generated random number. The host, through the interrogators, reads each of the identification codes associated with each transponder by iteratively transmitting a read identification code command along with a controlled variable. Each transponder compares the received controlled variable to an internally generated random number, and selectively transmits its identification code based upon the outcome of this comparison. After the completion of each read identification code iteration, the host adjusts the controlled variable based upon the responses received in the previous iteration. Preferably, communications between the interrogators and the transponders are DSSS signals in TDMA format, and the transponders use the random number generator to assign a time slot for transmission of their response. Each interrogator includes an antenna system utilizing a switch matrix to connect multiple antennas having different polarizations, which ensures that all transponders within the range of the interrogator receive the signals from the interrogator. In a further aspect, the interrogators are arranged in groups, each group in nearest neighbor format, to reduce the time for reading the transponders and the emissions generated when more than one interrogator is active at the same time.

Vehicle autonomous parking path programming method used for multiple parking scenes

The invention provides a vehicle autonomous parking path programming method used for multiple parking scenes. The method is used for automatically parking a vehicle in a parking space through an autonomous parking system when the autonomous parking system detects the available parking space. The method includes the steps that target parking space information is detected, and a parking scene is determined; the initial state and target state of the to-be-parked vehicle are determined; a vehicle kinematics differential equation is established; state variables and control variables of the vehicle are segmented, equidistance sampling is performed on each segment according to certain time step, and to-be-optimized variables are obtained; an equality constraint, boundary constraints and inequality constraints of the to-be-optimized variables are formed; motion range constraints of the to-be-parked vehicle are formed according to the motion range limit in the parking process of the vehicle; an optimization objective is determined, and an objective function is established; and by means of a nonlinear programming solver, an optimal solution of a parking path is obtained. The vehicle autonomous parking path programming method is suitable for the multiple parking scenes, the design is reasonable, abundant information can be provided so as to control autonomous parking of the vehicle, and the security coefficient is high.

Truck combination hinge angle measuring and controlling system

The invention relates to a truck combination hinge angle measuring and controlling system, which mainly consists of a truck combination hinge angle measuring portion and a hinge angle controlling portion and particularly comprises a GPS (global positioning system) tester, input equipment, a microprocessor, a steering wheel rotation angle sensor, a driving front-wheel steering controller, an executing mechanism and power supply equipment. The GPS tester, the input equipment and the steering wheel rotation angle sensor are respectively connected with the microprocessor, the steering wheel rotation angle sensor is connected with a steering wheel of the truck combination, the microprocessor is connected with the driving front-wheel steering controller which is connected with the executing mechanism, the executing mechanism is connected with a truck combination steering mechanism, and the power supply equipment supplies power for the integral system. By the truck combination hinge angle measuring and controlling system, truck combination hinge angle can be measured accurately, steering harmony and running stability of the truck combination during insufficient steering and over-steeringcan be effectively controlled by the truck combination hinge angle measuring and controlling system utilizing the hinge angle as control variable.
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