The invention relates to a multi-meter character recognition system and a multi-meter character recognition method based on machine vision. The system comprises an image acquisition module, a network storage module, and a software processing module. The software processing module comprises an electric meter group segmentation unit, an image preprocessing unit, an image tilt correction unit, an image enhancement unit, a character area positioning unit, a character segmentation unit, an image normalization unit, a character feature extraction unit, and a BP neural network identification unit. The image acquisition module comprises a grayscale processing unit, a binary processing unit, and a morphological processing unit. Multiple electric meter images can be identified at the same time, and human resource and work time are saved greatly. As an FTP cloud is used to store electric meter images and electric meter identification data, resource sharing is saved, the problem on storage of a lot of images and a lot of electric meter data collected in real time by cameras in a production field is solved, the memory of PC is released, and the efficiency of electric meter identification is increased.